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Research Project: New Weed Management Tools from Natural Product-Based Discoveries

Location: Natural Products Utilization Research

Title: Pesticide Dose - A Parameter with Many Implications

Author
item Vacant, Vacant

Submitted to: American Chemical Society Symposium Series
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/12/2016
Publication Date: 7/14/2017
Citation: Duke, S.O. 2017. Pesticide Dose - A Parameter with Many Implications. American Chemical Society Symposium Series. 1249:1-13. 10.1021/bk-2017-1249/ch001.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-2017-1249/ch001

Interpretive Summary: Like pharmaceuticals, pesticides can have unintended effects, even when used at the proper dose. For pesticides, the possible effects are even more diverse, because the chemicals are released immediately into the environment and the dose reaching the intended target(s) and unintended targets can vary widely, even when applied properly. Unlike most pharmaceuticals, pesticides are usually applied to kill more than one pest species with different levels of susceptibility. So, the recommended dose must kill the most tolerant targeted pest species. Subtoxic doses can cause stimulatory effects on many physiological and growth processes (hormesis). The dose used can influence the mechanism of evolved resistance to the pesticide, with high doses favoring target site resistance and low doses favoring other mechanisms. Controlled release formulations of pesticides can alter the kinetics of dose exposure to targeted and non-targeted species. Technologies such as smart spray systems for weed management have the potential to greatly reduce the amount of herbicides used. These are only a small sampling of the complex and far-ranging effects and implications of pesticide dose.

Technical Abstract: Like pharmaceuticals, pesticides can have unintended effects, even when used at the proper dose. For pesticides, the possible effects are even more diverse, because the chemicals are released immediately into the environment and the dose reaching the intended target(s) and unintended targets can vary widely, even when applied properly. Unlike most pharmaceuticals, pesticides are usually applied to kill more than one pest species with different levels of susceptibility. So, the recommended dose must kill the most tolerant targeted pest species. Subtoxic doses can cause stimulatory effects on many physiological and growth processes (hormesis). The dose used can influence the mechanism of evolved resistance to the pesticide, with high doses favoring target site resistance and low doses favoring other mechanisms. Controlled release formulations of pesticides can alter the kinetics of dose exposure to targeted and non-targeted species. Technologies such as smart spray systems for weed management have the potential to greatly reduce the amount of herbicides used. These are only a small sampling of the complex and far-ranging effects and implications of pesticide dose.