|FAROOQ, UMER - National Agricultural Research Center - Pakistan|
|ULLAH, AMAN - National Agricultural Research Center - Pakistan|
|IRSHAD, HAMID - National Agricultural Research Center - Pakistan|
|NAEEM, KHALID - National Agricultural Research Center - Pakistan|
|BIN ZAHUR, AAMER - National Agricultural Research Center - Pakistan|
|AHMAD, ZAHEER - National Agricultural Research Center - Pakistan|
Submitted to: Asian Biomedicine
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/1/2016
Publication Date: 4/1/2016
Citation: Farooq, U., Ullah, A., Irshad, H., Naeem, K., Bin Zahur, A., Ahmad, Z., Rodriguez, L.L. 2016. Sero-prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in large ruminants at peri urban dairy farms near Islamabad, Pakistan. Asian Biomedicine. 10(2):123-127. doi: 10.5372/1905-7415.1002.472.
Interpretive Summary: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) continues to be an important global disease having negative impact to livestock and affecting international trade. In countries like Pakistan, the continuing occurrence of FMD outbreaks causes economic losses and hardship in areas with great need for animal protein for their food security. Researchers from United States department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) collaborated with scientists from the National Agricultural Research Center in Pakistan in a study aimed at understanding FMD maintenance and transmission in Pakistani livestock, both cattle and Asian buffalo. The Asian buffalo is a domesticated species that provides meat and milk to a large segment of the Pakistani population. This survey was conducted in dairy farms near Islamabad over a one-year period, where individual buffalo from 20 dairy farms were sampled on a quarterly basis.The presence of antibodies against FMD virus in their blood was used to estimate level of infection among these herds. The results showed that almost half (46%) of the animals were positive to FMDV infection and buffalo accoutered for 97 % of the positive animals. Adult animals were 7 times more likely to be infected than young animals. This study will help to better understand the pattern of transmission of FMDV in Pakistan and will aid in devising better control strategies.
Technical Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an important, endemic, trans-boundary viral disease affecting livestock in Pakistan and associated with high economic losses. This survey was conducted to estimate sero-prevalence of FMD in large ruminants from peri-urban dairy farms near Islamabad. Serum samples were collected from 636 buffaloes and cattle during 2011 to 2012; of these 584 (91.8%) were buffaloes. The sampling population was mainly adult (n=514; 80.8%) and female (n=596, 93.7%). Sera were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against non-structural protein of FMD virus by CHEKIT FMD-3ABC bo-ov kit (IDEXX laboratories, USA). The data obtained were analyzed by '2 test and multiple logistic regression methods. The sero-prevalence of FMD in large ruminants of Islamabad was 46.1% (n=293, 95% CI; 42.18-49.95). The sero-prevalence was significantly ('2=21.46; p<0.001) higher in buffaloes (97.3%; 285) than cattle (2.7%; 8). The risk of FMD sero-positivity increased significantly with age ('2=72.71; p<0.001); adult animals were 7.05 times (Odds Ratio: 7.05, 95% CI; 3.60-13.79;p<0.001) likely to test sero-positive after adjusting for the effect of species. Similarly, buffaloes were more likely to test sero-positive for FMD (Odds Ratio: 3.99, 95% CI; 1.78-8.92,p=0.001). The sex of the animal does not have any association with the status of FMD (Odds Ratio: 0.58, 95% CI; 0.17-1.95, p=0.38). This study shows a high sero-prevalence rate of FMD in peri-urban dairy farms near Islamabad and is suggestive of potential role of these animals in the persistence/transmission of FMD in Pakistan.