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Research Project: Optimizing Heavy Broiler Management and Housing Environment for Sustainable Production

Location: Poultry Research

Title: Effects of light sources and intensity on broilers grown to heavy weights: Hematophysiological and biochemical assessment.

Author
item Olanrewaju, Hammed
item Purswell, Joseph
item Collier, Stephanie
item Branton, Scott

Submitted to: International Journal of Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/25/2016
Publication Date: 11/29/2016
Citation: Olanrewaju, H.A., Purswell, J.L., Collier, S.D., Branton, S.L. 2016. Effects of light sources and intensity on broilers grown to heavy weights: Hematophysiological and biochemical assessment.. International Journal of Poultry Science. 15(10):384-393.

Interpretive Summary: Most governments around the world including the USA have passed measures to phase out incandescent (ICD) bulbs due to its inefficiency in favor of more energy-efficient lighting alternatives, including cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFL), compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), and light emitting diodes (LED), among others. However, there are few studies with conflicting reports on how these differing light sources impact growth performance of broilers grown to heavy weights (> 3.0 kg). Evaluation of these new light sources is needed based on energy use, duration, cost, effects on growth performance, welfare, and physiological responses of broilers grown to heavy weights to ensure optimum production efficiencies, reduce electricity consumption, bird health, and welfare of broilers. In 4 trials with 2 replications per trial, we evaluated the effects of new light sources in the presence of (ICD) along with 2 levels of light intensities on blood physiological and biochemical assessment on broilers grown to heavy weights. The results indicated that the treatments had effects on some of blood physiological variables, but all these variables and acid-base changes were still within the normal acid-base homeostasis and physiological ranges. There was no effect of light intensity and no difference between 5 and 20 lx on virtually all examined variables. In addition, blood glucose and plasma corticosterone concentrations were not affected by treatments, indicating that these LED light source along with light intensities used in this study did not pose as anti-welfare to modern broilers grown to heavy weights. It was concluded that the light sources evaluated in this study may be suitable for replacement of ICD light source in commercial poultry facilities to reduce energy cost and optimize production efficiency without compromising the welfare of broilers grown to heavy weights.

Technical Abstract: Most governments around the world including the USA have passed measures to phase out incandescent light bulbs in favor of more energy-efficient lighting alternatives. Research is limited on blood physiological variables of broilers grown to heavy weights (> 3 kg) under these new light sources to ensure health and welfare of broilers. We investigated the effects of light sources and intensity on blood physiological and biochemical variables of broilers grown to heavy weights. In each of 4 trials having 2 replicates per trial, 960 1-d-old Ross × Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 16 rooms (30 male and 30 female chicks/room). A 4 × 2 factorial treatment structure evaluated 4 light sources [incandescent (ICD, standard), compact fluorescent (CFL), light emitting diode (LED), and poultry specific filtered LED (PSF-LED)] from d 1 to d 56 and 2 levels of light intensities (5 lx, 20 lx) from d 22 to d 56 of age at 50 % RH. Each of the 4 light source treatments was paired with one of the two light intensity treatments for each room. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Arterial blood samples were collected on d 14, 21, 28, 42, and d 56 of age and analyzed immediately. Light sources had effect (P = 0.05) on BW, pH, pCO2, pO2, SaO2, electrolytes, McHc, and Osmo. However, all these changes were still within the normal acid-base homeostasis and physiological ranges. There was no effect of light intensity and no difference between 5 and 20 lx on almost all examined variables. Plasma corticosterone and blood glucose concentrations were not affected by treatment. It was concluded that the light sources evaluated in this study may be suitable for replacement of ICD light source in commercial poultry facilities at the light intensities used in this study to reduce energy cost and optimize production efficiency without compromising welfare of broilers grown to heavy weights.