|HILL, RICK - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)|
|CLIFFORD, JOHN - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)|
Submitted to: Avian Pathology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/7/2016
Publication Date: 12/23/2016
Citation: Swayne, D.E., Hill, R.E., Clifford, J. 2016. Safe application of regionalization for trade in poultry and poultry products during highly pathogenic Avian Influenza outbreaks in USA. Avian Pathology. 46(2):125-130. doi:10.1080/03079457.2016.1257775.
Interpretive Summary: In 2014-15, the USA experienced an outbreak of deadly form of bird flu which affected 211 commercial farms, 21 backyard flocks, 75 individual wild birds and four captive-reared raptors in 21 states. In total, nearly 50 million poultry died or were depopulated at a cost of $850 million. The USA exports poultry and poultry products around the world, but with the outbreak, 17 countries suspended such imports while 38 trading partners regionalized the United States to allow trade to continue from areas not affected by bird flu. This regionalization allowed safe trade to continue. The impact of greater acceptance of regionalization was further realized during a separate outbreak of H7N8 bird flu in Dubois county Indiana with broader continuity in trade.
Technical Abstract: The 2014-15 H5Nx high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak affected 211 commercial premises, 21 backyard flocks, 75 individual wild birds and four captive-reared raptors in 21 Western and upper Midwestern states, resulting in death or culling of over 49.7 million poultry in the stamping-out program that cost USA government $850 million. The outbreak had a negative $3.3 billion impact on the economy. Seventeen trading partners suspended imports of all U.S.-origin poultry and poultry products while 38 trading partners regionalized the United States, allowed trade in poultry and poultry products to continue from areas of the U.S. not affected by HPAI. Disease response and control activities in addition to the use of comprehensive surveillance and regionalization (zoning) as prescribed by the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code is a scientifically valid and effective means to maintain safe trade in poultry and poultry products. This was further realized during the 2016 H7N8 HPAI outbreak in Dubois county Indiana with greater acceptance of regionalization and continuity in trade with a more limited cost of $30 million for eradication.