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Title: Validation of SMAP surface soil moisture products with core validation sites

item COLLIANDER, ANDREAS - Jet Propulsion Laboratory
item Jackson, Thomas
item BINDLISH, RAJAT - Collaborator
item CHAN, S. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory
item DAS, N. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory
item KIM, S.B. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory
item Cosh, Michael
item DUNBAR, R.S. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory
item DANG, L. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory
item PASHAIAN, L. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory
item ASANUMA, J. - University Of Tsukuba
item AIDA, K. - University Of Tsukuba
item BERG, A. - University Of Guelph
item ROWLANDSON, T. - University Of Guelph
item Bosch, David - Dave
item CALDWELL, T. - University Of Texas
item CAYLOR, K. - Princeton University
item Goodrich, David - Dave
item JASSAR, H.AL - Kuwait University
item LOPEZ-BAEZA, E. - Valencia University
item MARTINEZ-FERNANDEZ, J. - University Of Salamanca
item GONZALEZ-ZAMORA - Instituto De Investigaciones Agrarias Finca La Orden-Valdesequera
item Livingston, Mitchell
item MCNAIRN, H. - Agriculture And Agri-Food Canada
item PACHECO, A. - Agriculture And Agri-Food Canada
item MOGHADDAM, M. - University Of Southern California
item MONTZKA, C. - Agrosphere Institute
item NOTARNICOLA, C - European Academy Bozen
item NIEDRIST, G. - European Academy Bozen
item PELLARIN, T. - Grenoble Institute Of Technology
item Prueger, John
item PULLIAINEN, J. - Finnish Meteorological Institute
item RAUTIAINEN, K. - Finnish Meteorological Institute
item RAMO, J. - Universidad Nacianal Autonoma De Mexico
item Seyfried, Mark
item Starks, Patrick
item SU, Z. - University Of Twente
item ZENG, Y. - University Of Twente
item VELDE, R.VAN DER - University Of Twente
item THIBEAULT, M. - Collaborator
item DORIGO, W. - Vienna University Of Technology
item VREUGDENHIL, M. - Vienna University Of Technology
item WALKER, J.P. - Monash University
item WU, X. - Monash University
item MONERRIS, A. - Monash University
item O'NEILL, P.E. - Goddard Space Flight Center
item ENTEKHABI, D. - Massachusetts Institute Of Technology
item NJOKU, E.G. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory
item YUEH, S. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Submitted to: Remote Sensing of Environment
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/10/2016
Publication Date: 4/1/2017
Publication URL:
Citation: Colliander, A., Jackson, T.J., Bindlish, R., Chan, S., Das, N., Kim, S., Cosh, M.H., Dunbar, R., Dang, L., Pashaian, L., Asanuma, J., Aida, K., Berg, A., Rowlandson, T., Bosch, D.D., Caldwell, T., Caylor, K., Goodrich, D.C., Jassar, H., Lopez-Baeza, E., Martinez-Fernandez, J., Gonzalez-Zamora, Livingston, M.S., McNairn, H., Pacheco, A., Moghaddam, M., Montzka, C., Notarnicola, C., Niedrist, G., Pellarin, T., Prueger, J.H., Pulliainen, J., Rautiainen, K., Ramo, J., Seyfried, M.S., Starks, P.J., Su, Z., Zeng, Y., Velde, R., Thibeault, M., Dorigo, W., Vreugdenhil, M., Walker, J., Wu, X., Monerris, A., O'Neill, P., Entekhabi, D., Njoku, E., Yueh, S. 2017. Validation of SMAP surface soil moisture products with core validation sites. Remote Sensing of Environment. 192:238-262.

Interpretive Summary: The Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite mission successfully implemented and conducted a comprehensive calibration/validation of its geophysical data products. The approach is founded on the utilization of a global network of core validation sites that provides reliable estimates of soil moisture at the satellite grid product scales. Out of the 34 candidate sites only 18 fulfilled all the requirements established. The results of intercomparisons demonstrated that the performance of the SMAP soil moisture data products are within mission requirements and the value of this validation methodology. The effort to compare SMAP soil moisture products, in particular the radiometer-based product, will continue beyond the intensive phase in order to monitor and improve the performance of the products. Information on the reliability of remote sensing data products is essential for their utilization in scientific studies and applications.

Technical Abstract: The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission has utilized a set of core validation sites as the primary methodology in assessing the soil moisture retrieval algorithm performance. Those sites provide well-calibrated in situ soil moisture measurements within SMAP product grid pixels for diverse conditions and locations. The estimation of the average soil moisture within the SMAP product grid pixels based on in situ measurements is more reliable when location specific calibration of the sensors has been performed and there is adequate replication over the spatial domain, with an up-scaling function based on analysis using independent estimates of the soil moisture distribution. SMAP fulfilled these requirements through a collaborative Cal/Val Partner program. This paper presents the results from 34 candidate core validation sites for the first eleven months of the SMAP mission. As a result of the a priori screening, out of the 34 candidate sites 18 sites fulfilled all the requirements at one of the resolution scales (at least). The rest of the sites are used as secondary information in algorithm evaluation. The results indicate that the SMAP radiometer-based soil moisture data product meets its expected performance of 0.04 m3/m3 volumetric soil moisture; the combined radar-radiometer product is close to its expected performance of 0.04 m3/m3, and the radar-based product meets its target accuracy of 0.06 m3/m3. Upon completing the intensive cal/val phase of the mission the SMAP project will continue to enhance the products in the primary and extended geographic domains, in co-operation with the Cal/Val Partners, by continuing the comparisons over the existing core validation sites and inclusion of candidate sites that can address shortcomings.