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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Mississippi State, Mississippi » Crop Science Research Laboratory » Genetics and Sustainable Agriculture Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #330604

Research Project: Genetic Enhancement of Cotton by Marker-Assisted and Conventional Breeding, and Introgression of Genes from Exotic Gossypium Species

Location: Genetics and Sustainable Agriculture Research

Title: Genetic effects of chromosomes 01, 04, and 18 from three tetraploid gossypium species in topcrosses with five elite cultivars

Author
item Jenkins, Johnie
item McCarty, Jack
item Campbell, Benjamin - Todd
item Hayes, Russell - Russ
item WU, JIXIANG - South Dakota State University
item Saha, Sukumar
item STELLY, DAVID - Texas A&M University

Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/18/2017
Publication Date: 6/16/2017
Citation: Jenkins, J.N., McCarty Jr, J.C., Campbell, B.T., Hayes, R.W., Wu, J., Saha, S., Stelly, D. 2017. Genetic effects of chromosomes 01, 04, and 18 from three tetraploid gossypium species in topcrosses with five elite cultivars. Crop Science. 57:1338-1346.

Interpretive Summary: Chromosome substitution lines (CSL) are effective wayes to introgress useful alleles from exotic tetraploid species into Upland Cotton. Genetic effects of chromosomes 01, 04, and 18 from G. hirsutum (TM-1), G. barbadense., and G. tomentosum, were estimated by topcrossing TM-1 and six isochromosomal CSLs with five upland cotton cultivars from diverse breeding programs and comparing their F2 and F3 hybrids in several environments for eight agronomic and fiber traits. Additive genetic effects were more important than dominance effects for lint percentage and fiber uniformity, strength, and elongation; whereas, dominance effects were more important than additive effect for boll weight, lint yield, fober length, and micronaire. Chromosome T01, B04, and B18 had signficantly greater additive genetic effects for lint percentage than corresponding chromosomes from the other two species. CSL from the three species generally exerted negative additive effect on lint yield compared to commerical cultivars. Chromosome 01 from G. tomentosum had greater additive effects on fiber length and chromosomes 01 and 04 from G. barbadense showed greater additive effects on fiber strength than homologs from the other two species. These variations in the magnitude of additive effects on important agronomic and fiber traits show that G. barbadense and of additive effects on important agronomic and fiber traits show that G. barbadense and G. tomentosum have useful alleles and chromosome susitution lines can be an efficient means of transferring these alleles to Upland cotton. The presence of opposing positive and negative effects for a trait from the same chromosome from the three species, complicates use in breeding, and suggest that combining QTL mapping of specific desired traits would be useful.

Technical Abstract: Chromosome substitution lines (CSL) have been developed for selected chromosomes from two tetraploid species of Gossypium and have been shown to be effective ways to target introgression of useful alleles from exotic tetraploid species into Upland cotton, G. hirsutum L. Genetic effects of chromosomes 01, 04, and 18 from G. hirsutum (TM-1), G. barbadense L., and G. tomentosum, Nutt. ex Seem. were estimated by topcrossing TM-1 and six isochromosomal CSLs with five upland cotton cultivars from diverse breeding programs and comparing their F2 and F3 hybrids in two or more environments for eight agronomic and fiber traits. Data were analyzed according to an additive-dominance model. Results showed that additive genetic effects were more important than dominance effects for lint percentage, and fiber uniformity, fiber strength, and elongation; whereas, dominance effects were more important than additive effects for boll weight, lint yield, fiber length, and micronaire. All additive-by-environment effects were small for all traits. Dominance-by-environment effects were only significant for boll weight, lint yield, and fiber micronaire. Chromosome T01, B04, and B18 had significantly greater additive genetic effects for lint percentage than corresponding chromosomes from the other two species. Chromosomes 01, 04, and 18 from the three species generally exerted negative additive effect on lint yield compared to commercial cultivars. Chromosome 01 from G. tomentosum had greater additive effects on fiber length than chromosome 01 from the other two species. Chromosomes 01 and 04 from G. barbadense showed greater additive effects on fiber strength than homologs from the other two species. These variations in the magnitude of additive effects on important agronomic and fiber traits show that G. barbadense and G. tomentosum harbor useful alleles on some chromosomes and that chromosome substitution lines can be an efficient means of transferring these alleles to Upland cotton. However, the presence of opposing desirable and negative effects for individual chromosomes suggest that combining the isogenic dissection with QTL analysis to identify desirable and undesirable loci would render them amenable to marker-assisted multi-species QTL assembly.