Submitted to: Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/24/2016
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Brucella suis is an intracellular pathogen that causes reproductive losses in swine and which also causes zoonotic infections in people. Regulatory programs in domestic livestock, which include vaccination of livestock, are the most cost-efficient way to control Brucella suis and prevent human infection. The persistence of brucellosis in feral swine may pose a threat for reintroduction of brucellosis to swine and domestic livestock across the world. In this paper, we discuss the current knowledge on the epidemiology of swine brucellosis, diagnostics available to detect disease, and new developments in intervention strategies to reduce infection. This data will be of interest to regulatory personnel, people with responsibilities for management of brucellosis in wildlife or domestic livestock, livestock owners, and other parties with interests regarding brucellosis management.
Technical Abstract: Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic livestock, preventing human infection is the primary reason for its emphasis in disease control programs. Although disease prevalence varies worldwide, in areas outside of Europe swine brucellosis is predominantly caused by B. suis biovars 1 and 3. In Europe, swine are predominantly infected with biovar 2 which is much less pathogenic in humans. In many areas worldwide, feral or wild populations of swine are important reservoir hosts. Like other Brucella spp. in their natural host, B. suis has developed mechanisms to survive in an intracellular environment and evade immune detection. Limitations in sensitivity and specificity current diagnostics require use at a herd level, rather for individual animals. There is currently no commercial vaccine approved for preventing brucellosis in swine. Although not feasible in all situations, whole herd depopulation as the most effective regulatory mechanism to control swine brucellosis.