Location: Mosquito and Fly ResearchTitle: Oviposition deterrence and immature survival if filth flies (Diptera: Muscidae) when exposed to commercial fungal products Author
|Weeks, Emma - University Of Florida|
|Geden, Christopher - Chris|
Submitted to: Journal of Insect Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/10/2016
Publication Date: 12/14/2016
Citation: Machtinger, E.T., Weeks, E.N., Geden, C.J. 2016. Oviposition deterrence and immature survival if filth flies (Diptera: Muscidae) when exposed to commercial fungal products. Journal of Insect Science. doi:10.1093/jisesa/iew032.
Interpretive Summary: House flies and stable flies are important pests associated with animals and humans and transmit a wide array of disease organisms. Biological control is an important element in successful fly management, and naturally occurring fungi can kill these flies. Little is known about the how fungi, primarily Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, affect immature fly development and egg laying by house and stable flies. In this study, conducted by scientists at USDA’s Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (Gainesville, FL) and the University of Florida, five commercially available products containing B.bassiana or M. anisopliae were tested for sublethal effects. House flies and stable flies laid very few eggs on surfaces treated with the M. anisopliae product. Stable flies also did not lay many eggs on the organic B. bassiana product. Immature house flies had greater mortality after hatching on surfaces treated with M. anisopliae. These results suggest that the tested commercial products, primarily the product with M. anisopliae, could influence fly numbers by negatively affecting egg laying and development.
Technical Abstract: Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the sublethal effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (BotaniGard®ES, Mycotrol®O, balEnceTM), and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met52®EC),. on oviposition and subsequent fly development. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid the fewest eggs on Met52®EC treated surfaces. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52®EC and Mycotrol®O treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development.Met52®EC had the greatest effect on development with a reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52®EC, containing M. anisopliae, had the greatest sublethal effects on house fly and stable fly oviposition and subsequent development of house flies. Management implications are discussed.