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Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Control and Prevent Disease Outbreaks Caused by Avian Influenza and Other Emerging Poultry Pathogens

Location: Exotic & Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research

Title: H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza in Pakistan (2012-2015)

Author
item Lee, Dong-hun - Orise Fellow
item Swayne, David
item Sharma, Poonam - Orise Fellow
item Rehmani, Shafqat - University Of Veterinary And Animal Sciences
item Wajid, Abdul - University Of Veterinary And Animal Sciences
item Suarez, David
item Afonso, Claudio

Submitted to: Veterinary Record
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/28/2016
Publication Date: 7/8/2016
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/62900
Citation: Lee, D., Swayne, D.E., Sharma, P., Rehmani, S.F., Wajid, A., Suarez, D.L., Afonso, C.L. 2016. H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza in Pakistan (2012-2015). Veterinary Record. 3:e000171. doi:10.1136/vetreco-2016-000171.

Interpretive Summary: Significant economic losses from deaths and decreased egg production have resulted from H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infections in poultry across North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The H9N2 LPAI viruses have been endemic in Pakistani poultry since 1996, but no new viruses have been reported since 2010. Here we report on four new H9N2 LPAIV, three from 2015 and one from 2012. These Pakistan H9N2 viruses and ones from prior years have the molecular markers identified in avian influenza viruses that have infected mammals. Continued active surveillance in poultry and mammals is needed to monitor the spread and understand the potential for zoonotic infection by these H9N2 LPAIV.

Technical Abstract: Significant economic losses from deaths and decreased egg production have resulted from H9N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infections in poultry across North Africa, the Middle East and Asia. The H9N2 LPAIVs have been endemic in Pakistani poultry since 1996, but no new viruses have been reported since 2010. Because novel genotypes of Pakistani H9N2 contain mammalian host-specific markers, recent surveillance is essential to better understand any continuing public health risk. Here the authors report on four new H9N2 LPAIVs, three from 2015 and one from 2012. All of the viruses tested in this study belonged to Middle East B genetic group of G1 lineage and had PAKSSR/G motif at the haemagglutinin cleavage site. The mammalian hostspecific markers at position 226 in the haemagglutinin receptor-binding site and internal genes suggest that Pakistan H9N2 viruses are still potentially infectious for mammals. Continued active surveillance in poultry and mammals is needed to monitor the spread and understand the potential for zoonotic infection by these H9N2 LPAIVs.