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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Auburn, Alabama » Soil Dynamics Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #322465

Research Project: Using Agricultural and Industrial Byproducts to Improve Crop Production Systems and Environment Quality

Location: Soil Dynamics Research

Title: Planter closing wheel effects on cotton emergence in a conservation tillage system

Author
item Way, Thomas - Tom
item Kornecki, Ted
item Tewolde, Haile

Submitted to: Applied Engineering in Agriculture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/25/2017
Publication Date: 1/25/2018
Citation: Way, T.R., Kornecki, T.S., Tewolde, H. 2018. Planter closing wheel effects on cotton emergence in a conservation tillage system. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 34(1):177-186.

Interpretive Summary: Various agricultural crops are planted using row crop planters. Attaining good contact of the crop seed with soil is important in getting moisture from the soil to the seed, to promote seed germination, emergence of the plant from the soil, and growth of the plant. A planter for row crops opens a furrow in the soil and then places the seed in the furrow. Closing wheels at the rear of the planter then press on the soil at the sides or top of the seed furrow, to cover the seed with soil. The closing wheels help provide good seed-soil contact and can influence plant emergence and crop stand. Various types of closing wheels are available to producers for use on planters. Seven closing wheel types were used on a row crop planter planting cotton in a conservation cropping system during a three-year experiment on a sandy loam soil and a clay soil. A rye cover crop is commonly used in a conservation cropping system and in this experiment, each year, rye was grown on the soil as a cover crop prior to planting of the cotton. Before cotton planting, the rye plants were rolled using a roller, to lay down the plants on the soil surface. Cotton was then planted using the planter and the seven closing wheel types were used on the planter. Results showed that the type of closing wheel did not significantly affect emergence of cotton plants at 10 days after planting. For the conditions used in this experiment, the emergence of cotton 10 days after planting was not substantially greater for any of the seven closing wheel types, relative to another, but one of the closing wheel types, a John Deere cast-iron closing wheel type, provided the greatest average emergence of the cotton plants.

Technical Abstract: Closing wheels on a row crop planter help provide good seed-soil contact during planting and can influence emergence and crop stand. Various types of closing wheels are available to producers for use on planters. Seven closing wheel types were used on a row crop planter planting cotton in a conservation tillage system during a three-year experiment on a sandy loam soil and a clay soil. Cotton was planted into a rye cover crop which had been rolled prior to cotton planting. The planter closing wheel type did not significantly affect emergence of cotton plants at 10 days after planting. For the conditions used in this experiment, the emergence of cotton 10 days after planting was not substantially greater for any of the seven closing wheel types, relative to another, but the John Deere cast-iron closing wheels provided the greatest mean emergence.