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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #321093

Title: Separation and determination of citrinin in corn using HPLC fluorescence detection assisted by molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction clean-up

item Appell, Michael
item Jackson, Michael - Mike
item Wang, Lijuan
item BOSMA, WAYNE - Bradley University

Submitted to: Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/25/2015
Publication Date: 12/7/2015
Publication URL:
Citation: Appell, M., Jackson, M.A., Wang, L.C., Bosma, W.B. 2015. Determination of citrinin using molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction purification, HPLC separation, and fluorescence detection. Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies. 38(20):1815-1819.

Interpretive Summary: A new synthetic material was developed to enable better detection methods for the toxin citrinin in corn. Citrinin is a toxin produced by fungi that occasionally contaminate agricultural commodities. Contamination reduces commodity value and poses health risks to consumers and animals. Computational methods and synthetic receptor technology aided in the development of a material to help monitor and prevent exposure to the adverse effects of this toxin. The material was successfully applied to clean-up corn samples and enable accurate determination of citrinin using modern analytical instrumentation with fluorescence detection. These research findings will be of interest to food safety scientists, analytical scientists, and chemists. The detection method provides the food industrywith a new approach to monitor the toxin citrinin in corn.

Technical Abstract: A liquid chromatography based method to detect citrinin in corn was developed using molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) sample clean-up. Molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized using 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid as the template and an amine functional monomer. Density functional calculations suggest the mimic template interacts with the functional monomer in a similar manner as citrinin. Freundlich isotherm analysis indicated the template provided a significant imprinting effect for citrinin binding. A high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) method to detect citrinin in maize was developed utilizing the imprinted polymers for sample clean-up (excitation at 330 nm; emission at 500 nm). Recoveries of citrinin in spiked corn samples were between 82.3-91.5%. This study demonstrates that molecularly imprinted polymers are applicable in the solid phase extraction clean-up of corn samples for citrinin determination by HPLC-FD.