|MILLER, W - Advanced Animal Eye Care|
|MASLIN, W - Mississippi State University|
|Purswell, Joseph - Jody|
Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/20/2015
Publication Date: 2/16/2016
Citation: Olanrewaju, H.A., Miller, W.W., Maslin, W.R., Collier, S.D., Purswell, J.L., Branton, S.L. 2016. Effects of light sources and intensity on broilers grown to heavy weights. Part 1: growth performance, carcass characteristics, and welfare indices. Poultry Science. 95(4):727-735.
Interpretive Summary: Most governments around the world including the USA have passed measures to phase out incandescent (ICD) bulbs due to its inefficiency in favor of more energy-efficient lighting alternatives, including cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFL), compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), and light emitting diodes (LED) among others. However, there are few studies on how these differing light sources impact growth performance of broilers grown to heavy weights (> 3.0 kg) with conflicting reports. Evaluation of these new light sources is needed based on energy use, duration, and cost on growth performance, welfare, and physiological responses on broilers grown to heavy weights to ensure optimum production efficiencies, reduce electricity consumption, bird health, and welfare of broilers. In 4 trials with 2 replications per trial, we evaluated the effects of new light sources in the presence of (ICD) along with 2 levels of light intensities on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and welfare indices on broilers grown to heavy weights. The results indicated no significant difference among the 3 light sources and no difference between light intensities evaluated on growth performance and welfare indices examined were not affected by treatments, suggesting that light sources evaluated along with light intensity used did not pose as anti-welfare to broilers grown to heavy weights. It was concluded that the new light sources evaluated may be suitable for replacement of ICD in poultry facilities along with using low lighting environment to reduce energy cost. This study shows the positive impact on profits to commercial poultry facilities to reduce energy cost and optimize production efficiency without compromise welfare of broilers grown to heavy weights.
Technical Abstract: This study investigated the effects of light sources and light intensity on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and welfare indices of heavy broilers (> 3.0 kg) in 4 trials with 2 replications per trial. A total of 960 1-d-old Ross × Ross 708 chicks (30 males/30 females/room) were randomly distributed into 16 environmentally-controlled rooms at 50% RH. A 4 × 2 factorial treatment structure evaluated 4 light sources [incandescent (ICD, standard), compact fluorescent (CFL), neutral light emitting diode (Neutral-LED), and cool poultry specific filtered LED (Cool-PSF-LED)] and 2 levels (5 lx, 20 lx) of light intensities. Each of the 4 light sources was paired with one of the two light intensities. Birds were fed the same diet with a 4 phase-feeding program (Starter, Grower, Finisher, and Withdrawal). Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Birds and feed were weighed on 0, 14, 28, 42, and 56 d of age for growth performance. All mortality was recorded daily and feed conversion was adjusted for mortality. Immune response was determined on d 28 to d 35, whereas other welfare indices were performed on d 42, and 49, respectively. At d 56 of each trial, 20 (10 males and 10 females) birds from each room were processed to determine weights and yields. The BW, BW gain, live weight and carcass weights of birds reared under Cool-PSF-LED were different (P = 0.05) in comparison with birds reared under ICD. However, FI, FCR, and mortality were not affected by treatments. There was no effect of treatments on fat, breast and tender weights and yields. In addition, there was no effect of treatments on ocular development, immune response, mortality, and other welfare indices, suggesting that light sources evaluated did not compromise welfare of heavy weights broilers. It was concluded that the 3 light sources evaluated in this study may be suitable for replacement of ICD light source in poultry facilities to reduce energy cost and optimize production efficiency.