|Edwards, Judson - Vince|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/22/2015
Publication Date: 1/18/2016
Citation: Edwards, J.V., Fontenot, K.R., Prevost, N.T., Nam, S., Concha, M.C., Condon, B.D. 2016. Synthesis and assessment of peptide-nanocellulosic biosensors. In: Mondal, Md.I.H., editor. Nanocellulose, Cellulose Nanofibers and Cellulose Nanocomposites. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. p. 475-494.
Interpretive Summary: The synthesis of sensors via the covalent attachment of chromogenic or fluorogenic elastase peptide substrates, that detect human neutrophil elastase, with cotton and wood cellulose nanocrystals were evaluated. Characterization results from different techniques supports cellulose nanocrystals as a good transducer surface for sensors. The nanocrystals with the fluorogenic elastase peptide substrate were more sensitive towards detecting human neutrophil elastase levels found in chronic wounds. In conclusion, a natural source of cotton and wood is employed to generate cellulose nanocrystals sensors for the detection of human neutrophil elastase that is not only a marker for chronic wounds but is also a marker for skin, liver, kidneys, intestines, lungs, and vascular diseases.
Technical Abstract: Nanocellulose is an ideal transducer surface for biosensors: it provides a high surface area, easily derivatized with bioactive molecules, and abrogates binding of proteins present in biological fluids where analytes and clinical biomarkers are of interest. Here an example of approaches to biosensor detection is given for Human neutrophil elastase (HNE), a biomarker for chronic wounds and a therapeutic target for certain diseases. An unchecked influx of neutrophils degrades growth factors and collagen formation, thereby indefinitely delaying the healing of chronic wounds. Over the years, the use of cellulose and other polysaccharides as matrices for wound care has grown. However, nanocellulose transducers may improve both therapeutic and point of care diagnostics. Synthetic approaches to derivatization include esterification of the transducers for the covalent immobilization of peptides and enzymes, and numerous pathways for annealing peptides and proteins. Nanocellulosic transducers including cotton cellulose nanocrystals (cCNC) and wood cellulose nanocrystals (wCNC) provide transducer surfaces of varying reactivity and specific surface area. The comparison of (cCNC and wCNC) matrices illustrates the relative efficacy of putative transducer surfaces for colorimetric and fluorescent peptide conjugate sensors of HNE. Here we discuss routes to synthesis and analysis that demonstrate promise for application to diagnostic technologies interfaced with therapeutic paradigms for advanced wound dressings.