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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Athens, Georgia » U.S. National Poultry Research Center » Exotic & Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #317601

Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Control and Prevent Disease Outbreaks Caused by Avian Influenza and Other Emerging Poultry Pathogens

Location: Exotic & Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research

Title: Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus produces more-severe disease and lesions in specific pathogen free (SPF) Leghorn than in SPF broiler chickens

Author
item SA E SILVA, MARIANA - Former ARS Employee
item RISSI, DANIEL - University Of Georgia
item Swayne, David

Submitted to: Avian Diseases
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/12/2015
Publication Date: 2/1/2016
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/5151519
Citation: Sa E Silva, M., Rissi, D.R., Swayne, D.E. 2016. Very virulent infectious bursal disease virus produces more severe disease and lesions in specific pathogen free (SPF) Leghorn than in SPF broiler chickens. Avian Diseases. 60(1):63-66. doi: 10.1637/11230-070615-ResNote.1.

Interpretive Summary: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes an important disease of chickens but the virus strains vary in ability to produce clinical signs and lesions. This study determined the ability of a very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) strain to induce clinical signs, mortality, and pathological lesions in White Leghorn egg-laying chickens and White Plymouth Rock broiler. Under the conditions of this study, White leghorns were shown to be more susceptible to the vvIBDV when compared to White Plymouth Rocks, based on the production of death and more severe lesions in cloacal bursa. This study provides important information on variation of chicken breed as to susceptibility by vvIBDV.

Technical Abstract: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an important pathogen of chickens causing negative economic impacts in poultry industries worldwide. IBDV has a variable range of virulence, with very virulent (vvIBDV) strains being responsible for the greatest losses from mortality and decreased performance. Previous vvIBDV studies using conventional broilers reported resistance to lethal effects and decreased performance as compared to specific-pathogen-free (SPF) layers, but the potential contribution of the conventional vs. SPF status to resistance has not been examined. In this study we compared differences in the acute pathologic effects of infection by the California rA strain of vvIBDV for SPF white leghorn egg-laying chickens and SPF white Plymouth Rock broiler chickens over a 7-day experimental period. Based on the clinical signs and mortality observed, as well as on the more-severe pathologic changes in lymphoid tissues and kidneys, white leghorns were shown to be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of vvIBDV infection than were white Plymouth Rocks. This study provides important information on the impact of chicken breed on susceptibility to vvIBDV and the absence of impact from conventional vs. SPF status on the outcome.