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Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Support the Global Control and Eradication of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus(FMDV)

Location: Foreign Animal Disease Research

Title: Review of the global distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus from 2007 to 2014

Author
item BRITO, BARBARA - Oak Ridge Institute For Science And Education (ORISE)
item Rodriguez, Luis
item HAMMOND, JEF - Nsw Department Of Primary Industries
item PINTO, J - Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations (FAO)
item PEREZ, ANDRES - University Of Minnesota

Submitted to: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/22/2015
Publication Date: 5/20/2015
Publication URL: https://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/61568
Citation: Brito, B.P., Rodriguez, L.L., Hammond, J., Pinto, J., Perez, A.M. 2015. Review of the global distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus from 2007 to 2014. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. DOI: 10.1111/tbed.12373.

Interpretive Summary: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a disease of livestock (i.e. cattle, pigs) that has devastating economic effects. FMD occurs on a regular basis (i.e. is endemic) in most of the countries in Asia and Africa and parts of South America, while North America, Australia, and Europe are disease free. The disease is caused by a highly contagious virus (FMDV) with great genetic diversity, resulting in 7 types (called serotypes A, O, Asia and SAT1, SAT2, and SAT3) and hundreds of virus strains (also called lineages). Some of these diverse viruses have different properties that may contribute to sporadic spread beyond their recognized occurrence areas. The objective of this paper is to review the most significant FMD disease outbreaks that took place worldwide between 2007 and 2014. There were important FMDV serotype O introductions in two previously free countries: Japan and Korea. Another lineage of serotype O usually circulating in the Indian subcontinent was responsible for outbreaks in Northern Africa. Another serotype O lineage was found infecting wild boars in Bulgaria. In 2012 there was an important event with the serotype called SAT2 (usually present in central and southern Africa) emerging in Egypt and the Palestinian Autonomous Territories. In South America, one outbreak of FMDV serotype O, was reported in Paraguay in 2011, which up to that point, was recognized as FMD-free with vaccination. Lessons learned from past events point out the need for an integrated strategy that comprises coordinated global and regional efforts for FMDV control and surveillance.

Technical Abstract: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus affects livestock worldwide. There are seven different serotypes, each with a diversity of topotypes, genetic lineages and strains. Some lineages have different properties that may contribute to sporadic spread beyond their recognized endemic areas. The objective of this paper is to review the most significant FMD epidemiological events that took place worldwide between 2007 and 2014. Severe epidemics were caused by FMD virus (FMDV) lineage O/Asia/Mya-98 in Japan and South Korea in 2010, both previously free of disease. In India, where FMD is endemic, the most important event was the re-emergence of lineage O/ME-SA/Ind-2001 in 2008. Notably, this lineage, normally restricted to India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan, was also found in Saudi Arabia and Libya in 2013, and has caused several outbreaks in Tunisia and Algeria in 2014-15. In January 2011, FMDV positive wild boars were found in Bulgaria, where the disease last occurred in 1996, followed by 12 outbreaks in livestock infected with FMDV O/ME-SA/PanAsia2. In 2012, FMDV SAT2 caused outbreaks in Egypt and the Palestinian Autonomous Territories. Another significant event was the emergence of FMDV Asia1 Sindh-08 in the Middle East. In South America, one outbreak of FMDV serotype O, topotype Euro-SA was reported in Paraguay in 2011, which was recognized as FMD-free with vaccination at the time. Lessons learned from past events point out the need for an integrated strategy that comprises coordinated global and regional efforts for FMDV control and surveillance. Specific local characteristics related to host, environment and virus that condition FMD occurrence, should be carefully considered and incorporated to adapt appropriate strategies into local plans. In this review, we compiled relevant epidemiological FMD events to provide a global overview of the current situation. We further discussed current challenges present in different FMD areas.