|Costa Hurtado, Mar - Orise Fellow|
|Dejesus, Eric - Orise Fellow|
Submitted to: Avian Diseases
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/3/2015
Publication Date: 5/30/2016
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/62739
Citation: Costa Hurtado, M., Afonso, C.L., Miller, P.J., Shepherd, E.M., Dejesus, E., Smith, D.M., Pantin Jackwood, M.J. 2016. Effect of infection with a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus on infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in chickens. Avian Diseases. 60(1s):269-278. doi:10.1637/11171-051915-Reg.
Interpretive Summary: Avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are two of the most important viruses affecting poultry worldwide, but little is known on the interactions between these two viruses when infecting birds. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of NDV (mNDV) could prevent subsequent infection with a highly pathogenic (HP) AIV, consequently protecting against disease and mortality. To determine the minimum dose of mNDV required to protect chickens against HPAIV infection, chickens were inoculated with different doses of mNDV followed 3 days later by inoculation with an HPAIV. Although birds co-infected with the higher mNDV doses survived for longer than birds inoculated only with HPAIV, we did not observe the same protection with the lower dose of mNDV or when given a higher dose of HPAIV, indicating that the titer of the viruses are determinant in the viral interference observed. We also examined the duration of protection provided by a high dose of mNDV on HPAIV infection. In chickens inoculated with mNDV followed by inoculation with an HPAIV given 2, 4, 6, and 9 days after the mNDV, an increase in survival was found in all co-infected groups when compared to the HPAIV single-inoculated group. These studies show that previous inoculation of chickens with mNDV can affect HPAIV replication for more than a week but this viral effect depends on the titers of the virus.
Technical Abstract: Little is known on the interactions between avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) when coinfecting the same poultry host. In a previous study we found that infection of chickens with a mesogenic strain of NDV (mNDV) can reduce highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) replication, clinical disease, and mortality. This interaction depended on the titer of the viruses used and the timing of the infections. To further explore the effect of mNDV infectious dose in protecting chickens against HPAIV infection, 2-wk-old birds were inoculated with different doses of mNDV (104, 106 , or 107 50% embryo infective dose [EID50]) 3 days before inoculation with a HPAIV (105 or 106 EID50). Although birds coinfected with the higher mNDV doses (106 or 107) survived for longer than birds inoculated only with HPAIV (105), we did not observe the same protection with the lower dose of mNDV (104) or when given the higher dose of HPAIV (106), indicating that the relation between the titer of the two coinfecting viruses is determinant in the outcome. In a similar experiment, a higher number of 4-wk-old birds survived, and for longer, even when given higher HPAIV doses (106.3 and 107.3 EID50). In addition, we also examined the duration of protection provided by mNDV (107 EID50) on a HPAIV infection. Five-week-old chickens were inoculated with mNDV followed by inoculation with 106 EID50 of an HPAIV given at 2, 4, 6, or 9 days after the mNDV. HPAIV replication was affected and an increase in survival was found in all coinfected groups when compared to the HPAIV single-inoculated group, but the mortality in coinfected groups was high. In conclusion, previous inoculation with mNDV can affect HPAIV replication in chickens for at least 9 days, but this viral interference is titer dependent.