|Eberle, Kirsten - Iowa State University|
|Venn-watson, Stephanie - National Marine Mammal Foundation|
|Mcgill, Jodi - Kansas State University|
Submitted to: Virus Genes
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/30/2015
Publication Date: 9/16/2015
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/61566
Citation: Eberle, K.C., Neill, J.D., Venn-Watson, S.K., McGill, J.L., Sacco, R.E. 2015. Novel Atlantic bottlenose dolphin parainfluenza virus TtPIV-1 clusters with bovine PIV-3 genotype B strains. Virus Genes. 51:198-208. doi: 10.1007/s11262-015-1224-7.
Interpretive Summary: A virus was isolated from a bottlenose dolphin with cold-like symptoms. It was found that this virus was closely related to similar viruses from human and cattle. In the present paper, we show how this virus grows in cells compared to the human and cattle viruses. Proteins produced in infected cells were measured for these viruses. Finally, the genetic composition of these viruses was examined. It was noted that the dolphin virus is basically identical to the viruses from cattle and should be grouped with them.
Technical Abstract: Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV-3) is a common viral infection not only in humans, but many other species. Serological evidence suggests that nearly 100% of children in the United States have been infected with PIV-3 by five years of age. Similarly, in cattle PIV-3 is commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). A novel dolphin PIV-3 (TtPIV-1) was described by Nollens et al. in 2008 from a dolphin that was diagnosed with an unknown respiratory illness. At that time, TtPIV-1 was found to be most similar to, but distinct from, bovine PIV-3 (BPIV-3). In this study, similar viral growth kinetics and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1ß, IL-6, and CXCL8) production were seen between BPIV-3 and TtPIV-1 in BEAS-2B, MDBK, and Vero cell lines. Initial nomenclature of TtPIV-1 was based on partial sequence of the fusion and RNA polymerase genes. Based on the similarities we saw with the in vitro work, it was important to examine the TtPIV-1 genome further. Full genome sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis revealed that all six viral genes of TtPIV-1 clustered within the BPIV-3 genotype B strains and it is proposed that it be classified as such.