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Title: Infection and transmission of live recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccines in Rock Pigeons, European House Sparrows, and Japanese Quail

item Miller, Patti
item DIEL, DIEGO - South Dakota State University
item HAMAL, KRISHNA - Us Food & Drug Administration (FDA)
item Olivier, Timothy
item CARDENAS-GARCIA, STIVALIS - University Of Georgia
item MARCANO, VALERIE - University Of Georgia
item Afonso, Claudio
item Suarez, David

Submitted to: American Association of Avian Pathologists
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/10/2015
Publication Date: 7/11/2015
Citation: Miller, P.J., Diel, D.G., Hamal, K.R., Olivier, T.L., Cardenas-Garcia, S., Marcano, V.C., Afonso, C.L., Suarez, D.L. 2015. Infection and transmission of live recombinant Newcastle disease virus vaccines in Rock Pigeons, European House Sparrows, and Japanese Quail [abstract]. American Veterinary Medical Association. p. 122.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: In China and Mexico, engineered recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) strains are used as live vaccines for the control of Newcastle disease and as vectors to express the avian influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) gene to control avian influenza in poultry. In this study, non-target species were infected with different strains of rNDV and wild type (wt) NDV to evaluate the efficacy of replication and the rates of transmission to naïve contact birds of the same species. Pigeon and quail were equally susceptible to infection with rZJ1-lentogenic and rLaSota-AIV, with both shedding virus 10-14 days after infection and transmitting the virus to 25%-75% of the contact birds. Virulent wt NDV strains (quail/Nigeria/2004, quail/Nigeria/2008) were isolated 10-14 days after infection, transmitted to 33% of the contacts, and produced 10%-40% mortality in the quail. No mortality was observed when the quail were infected with virulent wt NDV originally isolated from chickens with 0%, 10%, and 100% transmission to contact quail infected with chicken/Pakistan/8/2007, chicken/USA/CA/2002, and chicken/Israel/826/2013, respectively. In pigeons the wt strains (pigeon/USA/NY/84, pigeon/Vietnam/Nghai Tan/2002) were also shed for 10-14 days, but more contact pigeons were infected (75%-100%) compared to 50% with the rNDV strains. Only 20% of the sparrows became infected with rLaSota with 0% transmission to contact birds. All of the sparrows became infected with lentogenic strains (wt NDV chicken/Australia/1998, rNDV ZJ1-lentogenic) with 50% and 100% transmission, respectively. The rNDV and wt NDV strains infected the non-target species and shed for up to 14 days, however, the rates of transmission varied for each virus. No clinical disease was observed with these rNDV strains under these experimental conditions.