Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/5/2014
Publication Date: 1/28/2015
Citation: Faulkner, O., Kapczynski, D.R., Bielke, L.R., Wolfenden, A., Kuttappan, V.A., Berghman, L.R., Hargis, B.M. 2015. Mucosal immune response in broilers following vaccination with inactivated influenza and recombinant Bacillus subtilis [abstract]. Southern Conference on Avian Diseases. CDROM. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: Mucosal and systemic immunity were observed in broilers vaccinated with mannosylated chitosan adjuvated (MCA) inactivated A/Turkey/Virginia/158512/2002 (H7N2) and administered with and without recombinant Bacillus subtilis to elicit heterologous influenza strain protection. Previously, mucosal immunity was significantly elevated after broilers were subcutaneously (SQ) injected with a commercial inactivated influenza vaccine followed by drinking water administration of MCA inactivated influenza on day (d) 4 and d14. Currently, inactivated recombinant Bacillus subtilis expressing full length high mobility box group 1 (HMGB1), truncated CD154, and multiple universal avian influenza antigenic proteins were combined with MCA ß-propriolactone-inactivated H7N2 to vaccinate broilers. CD154 is the T lymphocyte-expressed ligand for CD40 receptors on B lymphocytes and macrophages. HMGB1 binds to the receptor for advanced glycation end products to activate macrophage-lineage cells. Vaccines were administered by SQ route on day of hatch (DOH) and d 14, followed by oral gavage on d4 and d14. Systemic immunity was measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay and mucosal immunity was determined using a nucleoprotein specific ELISA. Mucosal immunity was measured in the homogenates of ileal scrapings. Systemic immunity was measured in serum collected 7-and 14-d after boost vaccination. Nucleoprotein specific mucosal antibodies were significantly higher than control broilers that received a combination of MCA, H7N2, and recombinant Bacillus subtilis SQ on DOH, and drinking water administration on d4 and d14 (P=0.015). H7N2 specific HI antibodies were highest (6.3±0.43 log2) among vaccinates in broilers 14d after second vaccination in broilers that received SQ injection on DOH and SQ d14 (P<0.001). Mucosal immune stimulation using inactivated recombinant Bacillus subtilis and influenza suggests that protection from circulating influenza viruses can be achieved without a live vaccination.