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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Athens, Georgia » U.S. National Poultry Research Center » Exotic & Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #311455

Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Control and Prevent Disease Outbreaks Caused by Avian Influenza and Other Emerging Poultry Pathogens

Location: Exotic & Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research

Title: Avian influenza virus

Author
item Spackman, Erica

Submitted to: Molecular Detection of Animal Viral Pathogens
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/6/2014
Publication Date: 6/1/2016
Citation: Spackman, E. 2016. Avian influenza virus. In: Liu, D. editor. Molecular Detection of Animal Viral Pathogens. Baca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p.377-382.

Interpretive Summary: Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza, which is adapted to an avian host. Although avian influenza has been isolated from numerous avian species, the primary natural hosts for the virus are dabbling ducks, shorebirds, and gulls. The virus can be found world-wide in these species and in other wild bird species. The importance and economic impact of AIV is that it can cause severe production losses in domestic birds (chickens and turkeys, and more rarely domestic ducks) and although very uncommon can be transmitted to people, constituting a public health threat. Because of the importance of AIV for agricultural production some strains (i.e., H5 and H7) are reportable to the world organization for animal health (OIE). This adds a regulatory framework to the detection of the virus and results in the standardization of tests at the national and international level. In the past decade molecular detection tests for AIV detection have been extensively validated by numerous animal health and veterinary diagnostic organizations (e.g., OIE, Offlu, USDA). Because AIV is a rapidly evolving virus, the validated tests are continually monitored for performance, and updates are made for new virus variants as appropriate. The current tests will be presented here. Finally, since AIV is a reportable disease, laboratories unfamiliar with working with AIV should check with local veterinary authorities on local regulatory requirements.

Technical Abstract: Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza, which is adapted to an avian host. Although avian influenza has been isolated from numerous avian species, the primary natural hosts for the virus are dabbling ducks, shorebirds, and gulls. The virus can be found world-wide in these species and in other wild bird species. The importance and economic impact of AIV is that it can cause severe production losses in domestic birds (chickens and turkeys, and more rarely domestic ducks) and although very uncommon can be transmitted to people, constituting a public health threat. Because of the importance of AIV for agricultural production some strains (i.e., H5 and H7) are reportable to the world organization for animal health (OIE). This adds a regulatory framework to the detection of the virus and results in the standardization of tests at the national and international level. In the past decade molecular detection tests for AIV detection have been extensively validated by numerous animal health and veterinary diagnostic organizations (e.g., OIE, Offlu, USDA). Because AIV is a rapidly evolving virus, the validated tests are continually monitored for performance, and updates are made for new virus variants as appropriate. The current tests will be presented here. Finally, since AIV is a reportable disease, laboratories unfamiliar with working with AIV should check with local veterinary authorities on local regulatory requirements.