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Title: Measurement of airborne influenza virus during hen slaughtering in an ABSL-3E bioBUBBLE®

item BERTRAN, KATERI - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)
item Moresco, Kira
item Swayne, David

Submitted to: International Poultry Scientific Forum
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2014
Publication Date: 1/26/2015
Citation: Bertran, K., Moresco, K.A., Swayne, D.E. 2015. Measurement of airborne influenza virus during hen slaughtering in an ABSL-3E bioBUBBLE® [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 2015 International Poultry Scientific Forum (IPSF), January 26-27, 2015, Atlanta, Georgia. CDROM.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Several avian viral diseases, including avian influenza, Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis or laryngotracheitis, are transmitted via respiratory droplets or by contact with contaminated fomites. Using high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus as a model, the objective of the present study was to standardize and optimize the air sampling method in a negative pressure containment enclosure (bioBUBBLE®) meeting the regulatory requirements for enhanced animal biosafety level 3 (ABSL-3E) facilities. Adult White Leghorn chickens were inoculated intranasally with 106 EID50/0.1ml of HPAI A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1). At 24 hours post-inoculation, oral swabs were collected to ensure infection and oral viral shedding, and all the birds were slaughtered following a simulated home slaughter protocol which includes the following steps (5 min per bird): kill, scald, defeather, eviscerate, and cleanup. Previously, this protocol generated airborne particles containing HPAI virus. A cyclone-type air sampler was used to collect large (>4 µm), small (1-4 µm), and fine (<1 µm) airborne particles. Virus isolation was performed on oral swabs and air samples. The following variables were tested: slaughter method (manual versus mechanical defeatherer), location of the cyclone samplers, cyclone samplers’ flow, bioBUBBLE® flow speed, temperature and relative humidity within the bioBUBBLE®, and running time of the cyclone samplers. The best setting conditions included: the use of one cyclone sampler at 3.5 l/min air flow; the bioBUBBLE® flow speed at 9 feet/min; the slaughter of all birds in parallel, rotating them through the different steps; and constant temperature of 24±1C and relative humidity of <80% within the bioBUBBLE®. Under these conditions, small and large airborne particles containing infectious HPAI virus were successfully recovered. The present study sets up the method to explore airborne transmission dynamics of avian influenza virus and other diseases.