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Title: Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens

item TELLEZ, GUILLERMO - University Of Arkansas
item LATORRE, JUAN - University Of Arkansas
item KUTTAPPAN, VIVEK - University Of Arkansas
item Kogut, Michael - Mike
item WOLFENDEN, AMANDA - University Of Arkansas
item HERNANDEZ-VELASO, XOCITL - Universidad Nacional Autonoma De Mexico
item HARGIS, BILLY - University Of Arkansas
item BOTTJE, WALTER - University Of Arkansas
item BIELKE, LISA - University Of Arkansas
item FAULKNER, OLIVIA - University Of Arkansas

Submitted to: Frontiers in Nitrigenomics
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/7/2014
Publication Date: 9/25/2014
Publication URL:
Citation: Tellez, G., Latorre, J., Kuttappan, V., Kogut, M.H., Wolfenden, A., Hernandez-Velaso, X., Hargis, B., Bottje, W.G., Bielke, L.R., Faulkner, O.B. 2014. Utilization of rye as energy source affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition, and bone mineralization in broiler chickens. Frontiers in Nitrigenomics. 5:1-7.

Interpretive Summary: Corn is the main grain that provides energy to a baby chick’s diet so that it can grow. However, at the present time corn is very expensive to use in animal diets. Therefore, alternative grain products are being investigated for their ability to provide energy to a growing chicks diet. Rye is one such grain to be considered as a feed energy source for a baby chick’s diet. These experiments show that a rye-based diet is not a good feed ingredient because it causes damage to the baby chicks’ intestine that result in poor growth by the chick. These experiments are important to chicken nutritionists because they show that rye is not a good source of energy for baby chicks diets and that different grains need to be tested to see if they will help the growth of baby chicks.

Technical Abstract: Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two different dietary cereal types, corn versus rye, on digesta viscosity, gut integrity, and gut microbiota composition in commercial broiler chickens. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, off-sex broiler chickens were randomly assigned to either a corn-soybean diet or rye-soybean diet (n = 20 chickens/group). At 10-d of age, in both experiments, 12 chickens/group were randomly selected, and given an oral gavage of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, the birds were humanly killed and blood samples were collected from the femoral vein to determine the passage of FITC-d. The liver was collected from each bird to evaluate bacterial translocation (BT). Duodenum, ileum and, ceca gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with rye-soybean based diet showed increased (p < 0.05) viscosity, BT, and, serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that chickens fed with a rye-soy based diet had increase (p < 0.05) in the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to chickens that received a corn-soy based diet. These rye-soy based diet fed chickens also had significantly higher coliforms in the duodenum and the ileum but not in the ceca, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in the duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in chickens fed with a rye-soy based diet when compared with corn-soy based diet. In conclusion, a rye-soy based diet evoked mucosal damage that elevated leakage through the intestinal tract of the intestinal tract, and altered the composition of the microbiota. Furthermore, studies to evaluate the possible inflammatory effects of non-starch polysaccharide in poultry rye diets are currently being evaluated.