Submitted to: Animal Influenza Virus
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2014
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Detection and diagnosis of influenza A virus (IAV) infection in animals requires a laboratory test since disease from IAV presents no pathognomonic signs. Diagnosis and surveillance of animal influenza focuses on the detection of virus or type specific antibodies. Whether one targets the virus or antibodies in testing depends on the goals of the testing. Further characterization of an isolate or antibody specimen may be conducted to define the subtype or other biological features. Specific tests which are employed will vary by species, the goals of testing, and resources. Because of IAVs importance for both domestic animals and public health numerous diagnostic tests have been reported in the literature and are commercially available. In fact IAV is frequently used as the proof-of-concept agent for new diagnostic technology. Also, because of the importance of IAV, some harmonization of diagnostic and detection methods have been established within a species or domestic animal group (e.g., poultry and horses). Standardization of testing methods for poultry is often at the international level (e.g., World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)) or at a regional or national level (e.g., federal government issued guidelines, National Poultry Improvement Plan in the U.S. In contrast there is sometimes less guidance with other species. Standard operating procedures and details of established and validated diagnostic methods can be found elsewhere.