|PIETERSE, C.M.J. - Utrecht University|
|ZAMIOUDIS, C. - Utrecht University|
|BERENDSEN, R.L. - Utrecht University|
|VAN WEES, S.C.M. - Utrecht University|
|BAKER, P.H.A.M. - Utrecht University|
Submitted to: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/5/2014
Publication Date: 5/14/2014
Citation: Pieterse, C., Zamioudis, C., Berendsen, R., Weller, D.M., Van Wees, S., Baker, P. 2014. Induced Systemic Resistance by Beneficial Microbes. Annual Review of Phytopathology. 52.
Interpretive Summary: Plants must cope with attack by soilborne and foliar pathogens and insects. One line of defense against plant pests is known as induced systemic resistance (ISR) whereby selected beneficial bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of pathogens and insect herbivores. This fundamental defense process of priming occurs in all crop plants and allows the plant to be on guard for attacks without exerting energy and resources to keep defenses continually activated.
Technical Abstract: Beneficial microbes in the microbiome of plant roots improve plant health. Induced systemic esistance (ISR) emerged as an important mechanism by which selected plant growth–promoting bacteria and fungi in the rhizosphere prime the whole plant body for enhanced defense against a broad range of pathogens and insect herbivores. A wide variety of root-associated mutualists, including Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Trichoderma, and mycorrhiza species sensitize the plant immune system for enhanced defense without directly activating costly defenses. This review focuses on molecular processes at the interface between plant roots and ISR-eliciting mutualists, and on the progress in our understanding of ISR signaling and systemic defense priming. The central role of the root-specific transcription factor MYB72 in the onset of ISR and the role of phytohormones and defense regulatory proteins in the expression of ISR in aboveground plant parts are highlighted. Finally, the ecological function of ISR-inducing microbes in the root microbiome is discussed.