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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Stoneville, Mississippi » Crop Genetics Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #307771

Research Project: Development and Characterization of Soybean Germplasm, Curation of Stored Accessions, and Regional Evaluations of New Genotypes

Location: Crop Genetics Research

Title: Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fattyacids,sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA

Author
item Bellaloui, Nacer
item Bruns, Herbert
item Abbas, Hamed
item Mengistu, Alemu
item Fisher, Daniel
item Reddy, Krishna

Submitted to: Frontiers in Plant Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/13/2015
Publication Date: 2/18/2015
Citation: Bellaloui, N., Bruns, H.A., Abbas, H.K., Mengistu, A., Fisher, D.K., Reddy, K.N. 2015. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fattyacids,sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA. Frontiers in Plant Science. 6(31):1-14.

Interpretive Summary: Information on the effects of agricultural management practices on soybean seed nutrition (composition and mineral nutrition) is scares, especially in relation to row-type (single- and twin-rows), seeding rates, and planting date. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of seeding rate and planting date on soybean seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and minerals (boron, phosphorus, and iron) grown in single- and twin-rows in the Mississippi Delta region of mid-south. Two field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 on Sharkey clay and Beulah fine sandy loam soil at Stoneville, MS, under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown on 102 cm single-rows and 25 cm twin-rows on 102 cm centers at seeding rates of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds per square meter. Results showed that protein, glucose, phosphorus and boron concentrations increased with increased seeding rates, but that the concentrations remained constant or declined at the highest seeding rates (40 and 50 seeds/m2). Palmitic, stearic, and linoleic fatty acids acid concentrations were least responsive to increased seeding rates. Early planting (April planting) resulted in higher oil, oleic fatty acid, sucrose, boron, and phosphorus on both single and twin-rows. Late planting (June planting) resulted in higher protein and linolenic acid, but lower oleic acid and oil concentrations. Our research demonstrated that seeding rate and row-type, and planting date altered seed constituents, but the level of this alteration was dependent on seeding rate and row-type, and planting date. The changes in seed constituent concentrations could be due to significant changes in environmental factors, especially temperature, nutrient uptake and accumulation in seeds, early canopy closure, and higher light interception resulting from increased seeding rates. This information benefits growers and breeders for considering environmental factors such as heat and agronomic practices.

Technical Abstract: Management practices such as seeding rate (SR), planting date (PD), and row-type (RT: single- and twin-rows) may alter seed nutrition in soybean. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of SR and PD on soybean seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and minerals (B, P, and Fe) grown in single- and twin-rows in the Mississippi Delta region of mid-south. Two field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 on Sharkey clay and Beulah fine sandy loam soil at Stoneville, MS, under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown on 102 cm single-rows and 25 cm twin-rows on 102 cm centers at seeding rates of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m–2. Results showed that protein, glucose, P, and B concentrations increased with increased SR, but that the concentrations remained constant or declined at the highest seeding rates (40 and 50 seeds m–2). Palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid concentrations were least responsive to increased SR. Early planting (April planting) resulted in higher oil, oleic acid, sucrose, B, and P on both single and twin-rows. Late planting (June planting) resulted in higher protein and linolenic acid, but lower oleic acid and oil concentrations. A significant (P=0.05) positive correlation between SR and B, Fe, and linolenic acid was observed. A negative correlation between SR and oleic acid was observed only in sandy soil. Our research demonstrated that SR, RT, and PD altered seed constituents, but the level of this alteration was dependent on SR, RT, and PD. The changes in seed constituent concentrations could be due to significant changes in environmental factors, especially temperature, nutrient uptake and accumulation in seeds, early canopy closure, and higher light interception resulting from increased SR. This information benefits growers and breeders for considering environmental factors such as heat and agronomic practices.