Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/22/2014
Publication Date: 8/6/2015
Citation: Dowd, M.K. 2015. Seed. In: Fang, D.D., Percy, R.G., editors. Cotton, Agronomy Monograph 57. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy, Inc., Crop Science Society of America, Inc., and Soil Science Society of America, Inc. p. 745-781.
Interpretive Summary: This review chapter discusses the processing and product obtained from cottonseed. The work provides an overview of the seed, its composition, and the methods used to extract and purify the oil. Uses for the oil and the meal, hull, and linter co-products are then discussed as are potential processing and product changes that might result from the development of low-gossypol seed, which is on the horizon. The work should be of interest to cottonseed processers and researchers and those interested in the use and value of vegetable oil and protein products.
Technical Abstract: Cottonseed is a second product of the cotton plant that accounts for between 15 and 25% of the crop value. The seed is extracted for oil, producing meal, hulls, and linters as co-products, or it is used whole as a protein feed ingredient for ruminant animals. The oil fraction is the most valuable and is consumed widely as a food product or is used for food preparation. Different processes have been used to extract cottonseed oil but the preferred method is to form porous collets of the kernels that allow for efficient solvent extraction of the oil. Meal and hulls are used as animal feed ingredients, although some industrial uses are being explored. Hulls are also valued as a component of drilling mud and are a preferred substrate for the production of some mushrooms. Linters are often pulped and used in product applications that require high cellulose purity. The recent genetic development of low gossypol seed has the potential to alter both the processes used to extract the oil and the use of the seed protein.