|RITCHIE, LAUREN - Texas A&M University|
|TADDEO, STELLA - Texas A&M University|
|WEEKS, BRAD - Texas A&M University|
|CARROLL, RAYMOND - Texas A&M University|
|ROONEY, LLOYD - Texas A&M University|
|TURNER, NANCY - Texas A&M University|
Submitted to: Nutrients
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/20/2017
Publication Date: 3/27/2017
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/5700706
Citation: Ritchie, L.E., Taddeo, S.S., Weeks, B.R., Carroll, R.J., Dykes, L., Rooney, L.W., Turner, N.D. 2017. Impact of novel sorghum bran diets on DSS-induced colitis. Nutrients. 9:330. doi: 10.3390/nu9040330.
Interpretive Summary: It is known that repeated bouts of inflammation promote colon cancer. It is previously reported that sorghum bran rich in polyphenols (i.e. 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, condensed tannins), also known as antioxidants, has the potential to protect against the progression of colon cancer. However, little is known regarding their effect during inflammation. Rats were fed diets containing 6% fiber from cellulose, black (high 3-deoxyanthocyanidins), Sumac (high condensed tannins), or Hi Tannin black (high 3-deoxyanthocyanidin and condensed tannins) sorghum bran and inflammation was induced before analysis. The results show that sorghum bran with high levels of polyphenols mitigate or reduce inflammation, which could be contributed by these polyphenols.
Technical Abstract: Background. Repeated bouts of inflammation are known to promote colon cancer. We have reported that polyphenol-rich sorghum bran diets decrease formation of colon aberrant crypt foci, however, little is known regarding their effect during colonic inflammation. Objective. We hypothesized that sorghum bran diets can ameliorate the effects of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis by modulating the luminal environment, mitigating aberrant TLR signaling, and upregulating epithelial repair mechanisms. Methods. Rats (n=80) were fed diets containing 6% fiber from Cellulose, or Black (3-deoxyanthocyanins), Sumac (condensed tannins), or Hi Tannin Black (both) sorghum bran. Inflammation was induced with three separate 48-h exposures to 3% DSS, and feces were collected pre and post DSS to assess short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Post DSS (d 82), animals were euthanized and the colon collected to assess colon morphology and gene expression. Results. In all DSS rats only discrete mucosal lesions were observed in the distal colon, and rats were able to maintain fecal moisture content without the presence of bloody stool throughout the study. Bran diets upregulated proliferation and repair protein (Tff3 and Tgfß) expression post-DSS, which was not observed in rats fed a Cellulose diet. Diet, not DSS, significantly affected SCFA concentrations with all diets maintaining fecal butyrate concentrations post DSS. In contrast to Cellulose, bran diets upregulated SCFA transporter expression (Slc16a1 and Slc5a8) post DSS. Conclusions. Although all diets mitigated severe colonic injury, bran diets alone upregulated repair mechanisms and SCFA transport expression, which indicates specific constituents of bran (i.e., polyphenols) may be involved in mitigating colitis.