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ARS Home » Plains Area » Fargo, North Dakota » Edward T. Schafer Agricultural Research Center » Cereal Crops Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #305702

Research Project: Genetic Improvement of Durum and Spring Wheat for Quality and Resistance to Diseases and Pests

Location: Cereal Crops Research

Title: Rewiring the wheat reproductive system to harness heterosis for the next wave of yield improvements

Author
item Gornicki, Piotr - University Of Chicago
item Faris, Justin

Submitted to: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Publication Type: Other
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/18/2014
Publication Date: 6/24/2014
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/63341
Citation: Gornicki, P., Faris, J.D. 2014. Rewiring the wheat reproductive system to harness heterosis for the next wave of yield improvements. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 111:9024-9025.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Bread wheat (hexaploid Triticum aestivum) provides an extraordinary ten-thousand-year story of a new species, established by early farmers, selecting for simple agronomical traits to facilitate efficient and plentiful grain harvest. The genetic changes underlying wheat domestication over thousands of years, however, included not just a collection of beneficial single-gene mutations, but also introgressions and whole genome duplication. The hexaploidization event occurred spontaneously in nature, but the resulting wild species did not survive - it is only known in its domesticated form. The evolutionary bottleneck(s) reduced genetic variation of the species and it was introduced broadly outside its native geographical range and habitat. Nevertheless, the present-day breeding programs delivered high-yield elite cultivars, which are planted in most major wheat-producing areas of the world. In the face of quickly declining arable land expansion and challenges from climate change and crop protection, the question arises: where can we find the next wave of increase in yield and global production of wheat? In this issue of PNAS, Kempe et al. describe molecular engineering of an elegant male sterility – fertility restoration system for the exploration of heterosis (hybrid vigour) in wheat. In the future, this system could facilitate introduction of hybrid seeds on a large scale.