Submitted to: The Veterinary Journal
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/17/2014
Publication Date: 10/5/2014
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/59860
Citation: Spackman, E., Pantin Jackwood, M.J. 2014. Practical aspects of vaccination of poultry against avian influenza virus. The Veterinary Journal. 202(3):408-415. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.09.017. Interpretive Summary: Avian influenza is among the most important diseases of domestic poultry worldwide. Vaccinating chickens, turkeys and ducks can be used to control the disease if used properly. Designing a successful and practical program requires the consideration of the specifics of an outbreak situation. For example, what species and age of birds are at risk, what resources are available to buy and administer the vaccine. In every event where vaccine is utilized the specific goals of vaccination should be clear and only high quality vaccine should be used. Good biosecurity and surveillance should be a priority at all times.
Technical Abstract: Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic (HP) AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination for low pathogenicity (LP) AIV is also becoming routine in regions where there is a high field challenge. In contrast, some countries will not use vaccination at all and some will only use it on an emergency basis during eradication efforts (i.e. stamping-out). There are pros and cons of each approach and since every outbreak situation is different no one method will work equally well everywhere. Numerous practical aspects must be considered when developing an AIV control program with vaccination as a component such as: 1) the goals of vaccination must be defined; 2) the population to be vaccinated must be clearly identified; 3) there must be a plan to obtain and administer good quality vaccine in a timely manner and adequate coverage with the available resources; 4) risk factors for vaccine failure should be mitigated as much as possible and; 5) most critically, biosecurity must be maintained, if not enhanced during the vaccination period.