Location: Crop Genetics ResearchTitle: Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield Author
|Smith, James - Rusty|
Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/26/2014
Publication Date: 3/13/2014
Citation: La, T.C., Pathan, S.M., Vuong, T., Lee, J., Scaboo, A.W., Smith, J.R., Gillen, A.M., Gillman, J.D., Ellersieck, M.R., Nguyen, H.T., Shannon, G. 2014. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield. Crop Science. doi:10/2135/cropsci2013.12.0819. Interpretive Summary: Soybean oil that is high in oleic acid content is very valuable to oil processors because food products with high oleic oil have a longer shelf life than do food products with normal soybean oil. To solve this problem, soybeans with high oleic oil were developed by using non-soybean DNA. However, these genetically modified soybeans were seen as undesirable by many consumers. Meanwhile, attempts to develop soybeans with high oleic oil, without incorporating genetically modified DNA, were frustrated because the non-genetically modified high-oleic soybeans tended to be lower yielding than normal oleic soybeans. However, two separate soybean genes were recently identified that, when combined into one soybean line, produce soybeans with high oleic oil. The question was, will these new non-genetically modified high oleic oil soybeans yield as well as normal oleic soybeans. Hence, the purpose of this study was to compare the yield and oleic acid levels between the new high oleic soybean lines and normal oleic soybeans. The study was conducted when forty high-oleic soybean lines were compared with forty normal oleic soybean lines at six environments. Averaged across all environments, the high-oleic soybeans yielded within 2% of the normal oleic lines. In addition, the high oleic lines had higher protein than the normal oleic lines. In conclusion, non-genetically modified high oleic soybean lines can be competitive for yield with normal oleic lines, and can have higher protein levels as well. This will benefit soybean producers, who need high-yielding soybeans, oil processors, who need high oleic soybean oil, and consumers, who want food products made from non-genetically modified crops.
Technical Abstract: Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic soybean lines derived from new gene combinations for seed yield and seed composition traits. Soybean lines with ~750-800 g per kg oleic acid concentration were generated by combining mutant allele S117N FAD2-1A from 17D and mutant allele P137R FAD2-1B from PI 283327. Also, lines were developed by crossing M23 with a different FAD2-1A mutation x (Jake x PI 283327) and used for comparative purposes. Forty F4:7 high-oleic lines with these mutant FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B genes were compared to forty F4:7 normal oleic acid lines (~ 200-250 g per kg) for seed yield, five fatty acids, total oil and protein concentration from six crosses grown in six environments. The high-oleic genotypes averaged >790 g per kg oleic acid and concentrations of palmitic and linolenic acids were significantly lower (~30% lower) in high-oleic acid lines than in their normal oleic acid counterparts in each environment. When averaged across all locations and populations, seed yield of the high-oleic lines derived from 17D were within 2% of the normal oleic lines, but yield between high and normal oleic lines varied among populations. The high-oleic lines averaged significantly higher in protein than normal oleic lines in all six populations. Oil was also higher in the high-oleic lines compared to normal oleic lines from the 17D populations, but was lower in the high-oleic lines derived from M23. Thus, high-oleic soybeans derived by combining mutant allele S117N FAD2-1A with mutant allele P137R FAD2-1B can have comparable yields with potential to generate more oil with greater functionality and a higher protein meal compared to soybeans with normal oleic acid content.