Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/1/2014
Publication Date: 7/25/2014
Citation: Swayne, D.E., Spackman, E. 2014. Respiratory diseases of global consequence [abstract]. In: Abstracts of 2014 Annual Meeting of the American Veterinary Medical Association, July 26-29, 2014, Denver, Colorado. CDROM.
Technical Abstract: Respiratory diseases are one of the two major categories of poultry diseases that cause the most severe economic losses globally, both as enzootic diseases and as causes of epizootics. Some respiratory diseases are of such importance they are reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and include infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease (ND), avian influenza (highly pathogenic avian influenza [HPAI] and H5 and H7 low pathogenicity avian influenza), infectious laryngotracheitis, and avian mycoplasmosis (Mycoplasma gallisepticum). The respiratory diseases that impact international trade in poultry and poultry products are ND and AI. Between July 2012 and June 2013, 80 countries had ND in poultry, poultry and wild birds, or wild birds only. Many developing countries are endemic for ND. Few actual outbreaks were reported except in ND-free countries that reported initial incursions. Since 1959, there have been 34 HPAI epizootics. For 2012-2013, H5N1 HPAI was enzootic in six countries: 1) self-declared enzootic (Egypt and Indonesia), 2) continue to report occurrences of outbreaks over multiple years (Vietnam and Bangladesh), or 3) have published data in the literature of continuous reports of infection and molecular evidence of virus continual presence in country (China and east India). For July 2012- September 2013, 17 countries have reported outbreaks of H5N1 domestic poultry: 12 with H5N1 (Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, Egypt, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, North Korea, Myanmar, Nepal and Vietnam), two with H5N2 (South Africa and Chinese Taipei), one with H7N3 (Mexico), two with H7N7 (Australia and Italy) and one with H7N2 (Australia).