Submitted to: World Mycotoxin Journal
Publication Type: Review article
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/6/2014
Publication Date: 6/5/2014
Citation: Lippolis, V., Maragos, C.M. 2014. Fluorescence polarization immunoassays for rapid, accurate and sensitive determination of mycotoxins. World Mycotoxin Journal. DOI: 10.3920/WMJ2013.1681. Interpretive Summary: Fungal infestation of commodities and foods is a recurring issue. The toxins made by certain fungi, mycotoxins, repeatedly cause significant losses for U.S. agriculture. Mycotoxins are of concern because they affect the health and productivity of animals, but also because they may enter the human food supply. To avoid problems many commodities, feeds, and foods are routinely monitored for their presence. This monitoring, which is done on a large scale, requires rapid and accurate methods of detection. This review describes the basic principles of a detection technology known as fluorescence polarization immunoassay and summarizes recent applications of the technology to mycotoxins in commodities and foods.
Technical Abstract: Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) is a type of homogeneous assay. For low molecular weight antigens, such as mycotoxins, it is based on the competition between an unlabeled antigen and its fluorescent-labeled derivative (tracer) for an antigen-specific antibody. The antigen content is determined by measuring the reduction of fluorescence polarization signal, which in turn is determined by the reduction of tracer molecules able to bind antibody in solution. To develop a competitive FPIA for mycotoxin measurement the tracer has to be synthesised and its binding response with a specific antibody should be tested. Selectivity and sensitivity of the FPIA methods are strictly related to the antibody/tracer combination used. Several FPIA methods for the detection of the major mycotoxins, including aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxins, and zearalenone in food and beverages have been developed in the last decade. Basic principles, key elements, advantages and limitations of these methods are reviewed. These FPIA methods are simple, readily automated, rapid, and suitable for high-throughput screening, as well as for the reliable quantitative determination of mycotoxins in foods and commodities.