|MEEKS, JEREMY - Kansas State University|
|MAGHIRANG, RONALDO - Kansas State University|
Submitted to: Transactions of the ASABE
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/4/2014
Publication Date: 1/15/2015
Citation: Meeks, J.C., Wagner, L.E., Maghirang, R.G., Tatarko, J. 2015. Fugitive dust emissions from off-road vehicle maneuvers on military training lands. Transactions of the ASABE. 58(1):49-60. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/trans.58.10428.
Interpretive Summary: Military training with off-road vehicles can alter the soil and cause more wind erosion and therefore increased air pollution. To learn more about the effects of military vehicle traffic on wind erosion, experiments with wheeled (e.g., HumVee) and tracked (i.e., M1A1 Tanks) vehicles were conducted at three military training facilities (Fort Riley, Kansas; Fort Benning, Georgia; and Yakima Training Center, Washington). Tests were made with different levels of traffic on different soil types (sand, silt, and clay content). After the vehicles drove on the study sites, the top layer of soil was collected into trays with minimum disturbance and tested in a laboratory wind tunnel for amount of dust generated. Dust potential was found to be affected by soil type, vehicle type, and number of passes. In general, wheeled vehicles increased dust potential as the number of passes increased (up to 50 passes were made) compared to undisturbed soil. However, for the tracked vehicle, we found an increase in dust potential after only 1 pass which remained high and constant with additional passes. Soil type also played an important role in dust potential where, as the sand content increased, the more dust could be generated. The results of this study will help the military plan training and determine which vehicle types to use on different soil types to minimize dust emissions and improve air quality.
Technical Abstract: Off-road vehicle training can contribute to air quality degradation because of increased wind erosion as a result of soil disruption during high wind events. However, limited information exists regarding the impacts of off-road vehicle maneuvering on wind erosion potential of soils. This study was conducted to determine the effects of soil texture and intensity of training with off-road vehicles on fugitive dust emission potential due to wind erosion at military training installations. Multi-pass military vehicle trafficking experiments involving wheeled and tracked vehicles were conducted at three military training facilities with different vegetative conditions and soil textures (i.e., Fort Riley, Kansas; Fort Benning, Georgia; and Yakima Training Center, Washington). The top 6 cm of soil was collected with minimum disturbance into trays and tested in a laboratory wind tunnel for dust emission potential. In wind tunnel testing, the amount of emitted dust was measured using a GRIMM aerosol spectrometer. The dust emission potential was significantly influenced by soil texture, vehicle type, and number of passes. For the light-wheeled vehicle, total dust emissions increased from 66 mg m-2 for undisturbed soil to 304 mg m-2 (357%) and 643 mg m-2 (868%) for 10 and 50 passes, respectively. For the tracked vehicle, an average increase in total dust emission of 569% was observed between undisturbed conditions and 1 pass, with no significant increase in emission potential beyond 1 pass. For the heavy-wheeled vehicle, emissions increased from 75 mg m-2 for undisturbed soil to 1,652 mg m-2 (2,108%) and 4,023 mg m2 (5,276%) for 10 and 20 passes, respectively. Soil texture also played an important role in dust emission potential. For all treatment effects with the light-wheeled vehicle, there was a 1,396% difference in emissions between silty clay loam soil and loamy sand soil.