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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Stuttgart, Arkansas » Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Cntr » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #296165

Research Project: INTEGRATED APPROACHES FOR IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY AND SUSTAINABILITY OF MORONE AND OTHER WARM WATER FISH PRODUCTION

Location: Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Cntr

Title: Organic Acids and Their Salts

Author
item Chhorn, Lim - US Department Of Agriculture (USDA)
item Luckstat, Christian - Addcon
item Webster, Carl
item Klesius, Phillip

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/1/2013
Publication Date: 7/17/2015
Citation: Chhorn, L., Luckstat, C., Webster, C.D., Klesius, P.H. 2015. Organic Acids and Their Salts. In: Chhorn, L., Luckstat, C., Webster, C.D., Klesius, P.H., editors. Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health. Hobokon, NJ: Wiley Blackwell. p. 305-320.

Interpretive Summary: Intensive fish farming, because of its potential for high production and economic return, is expanding very rapidly and is becoming an important enterprise worldwide. Under this production practice, loss due to infectious disease outbreaks have been identified as a major economic loss to producers. Short-term feeding of antibiotic-medicated feeds is a common practice to treat bacterial infections. Long-tern feeding of low doses or sub-therapeutic levels of antibiotics as growth promoters and for disease prevention in aquaculture has also been practiced, although not as extensively as in livestock and poultry production. In recent years, the growing concern over the possible development and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, and presence of antibiotic residues in animal products and the environment have made this practice less acceptable. On January 1, 2006 the European Union banned the use of antibiotics and related drugs as growth promoters in feeds of food-producing animals. This ban has implications in the international trade of animal products because the European Union only imports foods obtained from animals that were not fed with antibiotic-containing diets. Furthermore, the increased public awareness and objection on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGP) in animal feeds has led some major restaurant chains to mandate their suppliers to stop using antibiotics that are important in human medicine as growth promoters in food animals. Consumer advocate groups support these actions and are calling for more widespread bans. Thus, it is expected that worldwide use of antimicrobials in animal production practices will decrease in the future. This has compelled researchers to evaluate a variety of products ranging from plant extracts, immunostimulants, enzymes, prebiotics, probiotics and organic acids and/or their salts as alternatives to in-feed antibiotic growth promoters. Among these feed additives, the use of organic acids, their salts or their combination in livestock feeds have received some attention during the past several years. This chapter provides a brief summary of the chemical and physical properties of organic acids and salts commonly used as feed additives. The role of organic acids, their salts or their combinations in feed preservation and their possible mode of action in digestive tract (antimicrobial effects) and on nutrient utilization are presented. Since available information on these research areas for aquatic species is limited, information related to livestock will also be considered. An overview on the influence of dietary organic acids, their salts or their combinations on growth performance, feed utilization efficiency, and disease resistance in various fish species is also presented.

Technical Abstract: Intensive fish farming, because of its potential for high production and economic return, is expanding very rapidly and is becoming an important enterprise worldwide. Under this production practice, loss due to infectious disease outbreaks have been identified as a major economic loss to producers. Short-term feeding of antibiotic-medicated feeds is a common practice to treat bacterial infections. Long-tern feeding of low doses or sub-therapeutic levels of antibiotics as growth promoters and for disease prevention in aquaculture has also been practiced, although not as extensively as in livestock and poultry production. In recent years, the growing concern over the possible development and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, and presence of antibiotic residues in animal products and the environment have made this practice less acceptable. On January 1, 2006 the European Union banned the use of antibiotics and related drugs as growth promoters in feeds of food-producing animals. This ban has implications in the international trade of animal products because the European Union only imports foods obtained from animals that were not fed with antibiotic-containing diets. Furthermore, the increased public awareness and objection on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGP) in animal feeds has led some major restaurant chains to mandate their suppliers to stop using antibiotics that are important in human medicine as growth promoters in food animals. Consumer advocate groups support these actions and are calling for more widespread bans. Thus, it is expected that worldwide use of antimicrobials in animal production practices will decrease in the future. This has compelled researchers to evaluate a variety of products ranging from plant extracts, immunostimulants, enzymes, prebiotics, probiotics and organic acids and/or their salts as alternatives to in-feed antibiotic growth promoters. Among these feed additives, the use of organic acids, their salts or their combination in livestock feeds have received some attention during the past several years. This chapter provides a brief summary of the chemical and physical properties of organic acids and salts commonly used as feed additives. The role of organic acids, their salts or their combinations in feed preservation and their possible mode of action in digestive tract (antimicrobial effects) and on nutrient utilization are presented. Since available information on these research areas for aquatic species is limited, information related to livestock will also be considered. An overview on the influence of dietary organic acids, their salts or their combinations on growth performance, feed utilization efficiency, and disease resistance in various fish species is also presented.