|Bosilevac, Joseph - Mick|
|Kalchayanand, Norasak - Nor|
|KOOHMARAIE, MOHAMMAD - Former ARS Employee|
Submitted to: Journal of Food Protection
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/15/2013
Publication Date: 4/1/2014
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/58674
Citation: Schmidt, J.W., Bosilevac, J.M., Kalchayanand, N., Wang, R., Wheeler, T.L., Koohmaraie, M. 2014. Immersion in antimicrobial solutions reduces Salmonella enterica and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli on beef cheek meat. Journal of Food Protection. 77(4):538-548.
Interpretive Summary: Like other raw materials for ground beef such as lean trimmings, effective antimicrobial treatments for beef cheek meat are needed to ensure the safest ground beef possible. The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of immersion treatment of beef cheek meat with seven different antimicrobial solutions (5% lactic acid, 2.5% lactic acid, 300 ppm hypobromous acid, 220 ppm peroxyacetic acid, 1% Aftec 3000, 2.5% Beefxide, 0.5%/0.05% levulinic acid/sodium dodecyl sulfate) for reducing Salmonella and E. coli. Cheek meat pieces were inoculated with Salmonella and E. coli then immersed in one of the seven antimicrobial intervention solutions or room temperature tap water for 1, 2.5, or 5 minutes. Inoculated cheek meat also was immersed in hot (176 degrees F) tap water for 10 seconds. The results indicate 5% lactic acid and hot water were most effective in reducing Salmonella and E. coli, followed by 2.5% lactic acid, 220 ppm peroxyacetic acid, 1% Aftec 3000, and 2.5% Beefxide. Other treatments were no more effective than room temperature water. This work identified effective antimicrobial treatments that could be used on beef cheek meat to improve the safety of ground beef.
Technical Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of immersing beef cheek meat in antimicrobial solutions on the reduction of O157:H7 Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC), non-O157:H7 STEC, and Salmonella enterica. Beef cheek meat was inoculated with O157:H7 STEC, non-O157:H7 STEC, and S. enterica on both the adipose and muscle surfaces. The inoculated cheek meat was then immersed in one of seven antimicrobial solutions for 1, 2.5, or 5 min: (i) 1% Aftec 3000 (AFTEC), (ii) 2.5% Beefxide (BX), (iii) 300 ppm of hypobromous acid (HOBR), (iv) 2.5% lactic acid (LA2.5), (v) 5% lactic acid (LA5), (vi) 0.5% levulinic acid and 0.05% sodium dodecyl sulfate (LEV-SDS), or (vii) 220 ppm of peroxyacetic acid (POA). Inoculated cheek meat was also immersed in 80uC tap water (HW) for 10 s. In general, increasing immersion duration in antimicrobial solutions did not significantly (P = 0.05) increase effectiveness. Immersion in HW for 10 s was the most effective intervention, reducing STEC and S. enterica by 2.2 to 2.3 log CFU/cm2 on the adipose surface and by 1.7 to 1.8 log CFU/cm2 on the muscle surface. Immersion for 1 min in AFTEC, BX, LA2.5, LA5, or POA was also effective as an intervention, reducing STEC and S. enterica by 0.8 to 2.0 log CFU/cm2 on the adipose surface and by 0.6 to 1.4 log CFU/cm2 on the muscle surface. Immersion for 1 min in HOBR or LEV-SDS was not an effective intervention because STEC and S. enterica reductions ranged from 0.1 to 0.4 log CFU/cm2, which were not significantly different (P = 0.05) from the reductions obtained when cheek meat was immersed in room temperature tap water. We conclude that immersion of cheek meat in HW for 10 s and immersion for 1 min in AFTEC, BX, LA2.5, LA5, or POA effectively reduced levels of STEC and S. enterica.