Submitted to: Planta Medica
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/27/2010
Publication Date: 1/22/2011
Citation: Amin, E., El-Hawary, S.S., Fathy, M.M., Mohammed, R., Ali, Z., Tabanca, N., Wedge, D.E., Becnel, J.J., Khan, I.A. 2011. Triterpenoidal saponins: bioactive secondary metabolites from Zygophyllum coccineum L. Planta Medica. 77:485-488. Interpretive Summary: Saponins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and have a wide range of biological properties. Several investigations have reported the anti inflammatory, anti bacterial, anti fungal, anti parasitic, anti viral, hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of saponins. As part of a research program aimed at identifying new natural fungicides and insecticides, Zygophyllum coccineum, a saponin rich plant, was chosen for further investigation. Phytochemical investigation of Z. coccineum L., led to the isolation of nine ursane-type triterpene saponins including one new saponin: zygophylloside S. This compound, and several of the others, showed 32-77% fungal growth inhibition at a low concentration against Phomopsis viticola. One of two compounds showed 90% and 80% mosquitocidal activity at 3.125 ppm against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.
Technical Abstract: Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Zygophyllum coccineum L., led to the isolation of nine ursane-type triterpene saponins (1-9) including one new: zygophylloside S (1), together with known flavonoid glycoside (10), and sterol glycoside (11). The isolated compounds were tested for antifungal activity against several important plant pathogens, as well as for insecticidal activity against two important mosquito species. Among the isolated compounds 1, 3, 5, 6, and 9 showed 32-77% fungal growth inhibition at concentration of 30 µM against Phomopsis viticola, while compound 9 showed 90% and 80% mosquitocidal activity at 3.125 ppm against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively.