Submitted to: Polymers for Advanced Technologies
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/13/2011
Publication Date: 6/17/2011
Citation: Nguyen, T.D., Chang, S., Condon, B.D., Uchimiya, S.M., Graves, E.E., Smith, J.N., Easson, M.W., Wakelyn, P. 2011. Synthesis and characterization of a novel phosphorus-nitrogen containing flame retardant and its application for textile. Polymers for Advanced Technologies. 23(7):1036-1044. Interpretive Summary: It is particularly useful to design and develop new environmentally friendly organic compounds and formulations that enable textiles and other articles of commerce to be flame resistant. Towards this goal novel compound was prepared via short two-step syntheses, and formulated in aqueous solutions to make twill fabric pass the vertical flame test. We achieved this ultimate result and in the process explained our design criteria, the chemistry to achieve the new compounds, and employed standard test methods to verify our results. The new compound and their formulations will be of interest and use to professionals engaged in new materials designing in textile industries to create new marketable uses for cotton fibers and fabrics to serve emerging needs.
Technical Abstract: The economic and environmentally friendly flame retardant compound, tetramethyl (6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diyl)bis(oxy)bis (methylene)diphosphonate (FR-1) was synthesized by a simple 2 step procedure from dimethyl phosphate, and its chemical structure was characterized by 1H, 13C, and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography- mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Using the traditional pad-dry-cure method, several different add-ons (%) were obtained by treating cotton twill fabric with flame retardant (FR-1). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), in an air and nitrogen atmosphere, of the modified cotton showed that decompose occurred ~230ºC with 16% residue weight char yield at 600ºC indicated high thermal stability for all treated levels. Limiting oxygen index (LOI) and the vertical flammability test were employed to determine the effectiveness of the flame retardant treatments on the fabrics. LOI values increased from ~18% oxygen in nitrogen for untreated fabric to maximum of 34% for the highest treatment level. Fabrics with 17% or higher levels of flame retardant easily passed the vertical flammability test. Furthermore, FT-IR and SEM were utilized to examine the chemical components as well as the surface morphology of the flame retardant treated twill fabrics, including char area and the edge between unburned fabric and char area.