|Tillman, Patricia - Glynn|
Submitted to: Environmental Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/21/2009
Publication Date: 4/1/2010
Citation: Tillman, P.G., Aldrich, J.R., Khrimian, A., Cottrell, T.E. 2010. Pheromone attraction and cross-attraction of Nezara, Acrosternum, and Euschistus spp. stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in the field. Environmental Entomology. 39(2):610-617.
Interpretive Summary: Stink bugs, mainly the southern green stink bug, the green stink bug, and the brown stink bug, are primary pests responsible for millions of dollars in losses and control costs in most fruit, nut, vegetable, grain, and row crops. Detecting infestations of stink bugs using pheromones remains problematic. Therefore, we conducted a 2-yr on-farm study to examine the attractiveness and possible cross-attraction of the pheromones for the brown-winged green stink bug, the southern green stink bug, the green stink bug, and the brown stink bug to the latter three stink bug species. The attractiveness of stink bug pheromones to parasites of stink bugs was also examined. We demonstrated for the first time under field conditions that southern green stink bugs can be trapped with the pheromone produced this stink bug. Traps baited with the brown-winged green stink bug pheromone attracted green stink bugs. The brown stink bug pheromone was attractive to the brown stink bug. In general, stink bug parasites were attractive to the pheromones of their stink bug hosts. In conclusion, our results show that stink bug traps baited with stink bug pheromones have excellent potential for monitoring/managing populations of the southern green stink bug, the green stink bug, and the brown stink bug in diversified agricultural landscapes.
Technical Abstract: Detecting infestations of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) using pheromones remains problematic, particularly so in the U. S. for the exotic southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.), and our native green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say). Despite the fact that pheromones of these stink bugs have been described in the literature, there have been no successful tests of these pheromones under field conditions. On the other hand, A. hilare was reportedly cross-attracted in the field to methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate, the pheromone produced by males of Plautia stali Scott, which is a southeast Asian species not present in the U. S. Earlier research on Euschistus spp. showed that several congeneric species are attracted to the male-produced compound, methyl (E,Z)-decadienoate. We conducted a 2-yr on-farm study to examine the attractiveness and possible cross-attraction of the reported pheromones for Plautia stali Scott, N. viridula, A. hilare, and Euschistus servus (Say) to the latter three stink bug species. The attractiveness of pentatomid pheromones to tachinid parasitoids of stink bugs was also examined. We demonstrated for the first time under field conditions that N. viridula can be trapped with its reported pheromone, a 3:1 trans- to cis-(Z)-a-bisabolene epoxide blend. In fact, attraction of N. viridula increased with higher pheromone dosages. In contrast, traps baited with a 5:95 trans- to cis-(Z)-a-bisabolene epoxide blend, the reported A. hilare pheromone, failed to attract significantly more green stink bugs than did unbaited control traps. The E. servus pheromone (methyl (E,Z)-2,4decadienoate) was more attractive to E. servus than to N. viridula, P. stali, or A. hilare pheromones. In general, tachinid parasitoids were found responsive to the pheromones of known hosts. In conclusion, our results show that stink bug traps baited with N. viridula, P. stali, and E. servus pheromones have excellent potential for monitoring/managing populations of N. viridula, A. hilare, and E. servus in diversified agricultural landscapes.