Submitted to: Aquatic Animal Drug Approval Partnership (AADAP)
Publication Type: Other
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/29/2007
Publication Date: 11/1/2007
Citation: Mitchell, A.J., Darwish, A.M., Fuller, S.A. 2007. Comparing the effectiveness of two applications of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate against Ichthyobodosis (Costiosis) on sunshine bass in tanks. Aquatic Animal Drug Approval Partnership (AADAP). 3(3):5-6. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: The biflagellated single-cell parasite Ichthyobodo nectator, more commonly known as Costia, can cause significant fish losses among fish populations, particularly those cultured in tanks. It is often associated with young fish that have been crowded, underfed, and held in waters with low flow, but its occurrence is not limited to these conditions. A number of treatments including acetic acid, formalin, salt, potassium permanganate (KMnO4), and copper sulfate (CuSO4) have been used for more than 30 years but most of the evidence for the effectiveness of these treatments is anecdotal. Our study evaluated the effectiveness of KMnO4 and CuSO4 against a heavy, naturally-occurring, I. nectator infestation on sunshine bass raised in tanks. Four-h static treatments of 3 mg/L KMnO4 (2.5 mg/L above the determined KMnO4 demand) and 2 mg/L CuSO4 (the waters had an alkalinity of about 200 mg/L) were randomly applied to 4 tanks each (23 fish/tank). Four tanks remained as positive controls (PC). The same treatments were re-applied 2 days later. By 2-days post-treatment, only 17.4% of the PC fish survived and a sample of some of the remaining fish were found heavily infested with I. nectator. All remaining PC fish were dead by 5-days post-treatment. Potassium permanganate significantly curtailed the initial mortality (92.4% survival) and slightly reduced the high parasite loads at 2-days post-treatment. However, fish mortalities increased dramatically over the next 3 days, lowering survival to 37.5%, and parasites loads from sampled fish remained high. The CuSO4 treatment was effective in significantly lowering the parasite load (almost eliminating I. nectator) and maintaining a high fish survival (87.5%) by 5-d post-treatment.