Submitted to: The Catfish Journal
Publication Type: Trade Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/11/2007
Publication Date: 7/12/2007
Citation: Straus, D.L. 2007. Copper sulfate: Liquid or crystals? The Catfish Journal. 21(11):17.
Technical Abstract: Two separate experiments were conducted to evaluate copper toxicity to channel catfish and free-swimming Ichthyophthirius multifiliis or Ich (the stage of Ich that can be treated); the compounds we used were CuSO4 crystals and a non-chelated liquid CuSO4 product. In 96 hr tests conducted in aquaria at both low (48 ppm) and high (243 ppm) alkalinity, there was no difference in toxicity to catfish between the two products. Likewise, there was very little difference in toxicity to free-swimming Ich. Based on equivalent concentrations of copper, we found no evidence that the liquid CuSO4 product would be more effective than CuSO4 crystals.