Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/23/2004
Publication Date: 9/1/2006
Citation: Rines, H.W., Molnar, S.J., Tinker, N.A., Phillips, R.L. 2006. Oat. In: Kole, C., editor. Genome Mapping and Molecular Breeding in Plants. Vol. 1: Cereals and Millets. New York, NY: Springer. p. 211-242. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: This review summarizes progress and discusses opportunities and limitations in genome mapping and molecular breeding in the cereal oat. It begins with a brief history of the crop and summaries of the biology of the species and traits that guide oat breeding to provide context for the subject discussions. The primary cultivated oat, Avena sativa L., is an allohexaploid although oat occurs at diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid species levels. The first oat marker linkage maps were developed in crosses of diploid Avena species and have been used to compare genome organization in oat with that of other cereals. The initial hexaploid oat map was developed from a cross between a facultative winter oat cultivar, Kanota, and a spring oat cultivar, Ogle. The current Kanota x Ogle map includes more than 1,160 molecular markers. It serves as a basis for development and comparison of several additional hexaploid oat maps that have been produced from crosses involving oat genotypes with traits of special interest. Single genes, particularly ones for oat crown and stem rust disease resistance, have been placed on oat maps by linkage association to molecular markers. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified for several agronomic and seed composition traits in oat but often are found to be population specific. Marker-assisted selection in oat has been successfully applied for a few single gene traits, particularly rust resistance, but has not been reliably applicable yet for quantitative traits. Although sequencing of the oat genome is unlikely for the next several years, the identification and mapping of genes and markers in oat, facilitated by comparisons with genomic sequence and expression information being generated in other crop and model plant species, is likely to play a major role in future oat breeding approaches and strategies.