Submitted to: Handbook of Fungal Biotechnology
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/15/2003
Publication Date: 2/15/2004
Citation: Chu, F.S., Bhatnagar, D. Mycotoxins, p. 325-342. In Arora, D. K. (ed.) Fungal Biotechnology in Agricultural, Food, and Environmental Applications, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. 2004.
Technical Abstract: Mycotoxins are low molecular weight secondary metabolites of fungi that are contaminants of agricultural commodities, foods, and feeds. Fungi that produce these toxins do so both prior to harvest and during storage. Although contamination of commodities by toxigenic fungi occur frequently in areas with a hot and humid climate (i.e. conditions favorable for fungal growth), they can also be found in temperate conditions. Production of mycotoxins is dependent upon the type of producing fungus and environmental conditions such as the substrate, water activity (moisture and relative humidity), duration of exposure to stress conditions, and microbial, insect, or other animal interactions. Although outbreaks of mycotoxicoses in humans have been documented, several of these have not been well characterized, neither has a direct correlation between the mycotoxin and resulting toxic effect been well established in vivo. Even though the specific modes of action of most of the toxins are not well established, acute and chronic effects in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, including humans, have been reported. The toxicity of the mycotoxins varies considerably with the toxin, the animal species exposed to it, and the extent of exposure, age, and nutritional status. Induction of cancer by some mycotoxins is a major concern as a chronic effect of these toxins. It is nearly impossible to completely eliminate mycotoxins from the foods and feed in spite of the regulatory efforts at the national and international levels to remove the contaminated commodities. This is because mycotoxins are highly stable compounds, the producing fungi are ubiquitous, and food contamination can occur both before and after harvest. Nevertheless, good farm management practices and adequate storage facilities minimize the toxin contamination problems. A combination of natural biocontrol competition fungi and enhancement of host-resistance against fungal growth or toxin production could prevent toxin formation to a very significant extent. Rigorous programs for reducing the risk of human and animal exposure to contaminated foods and feed also include economically feasible and safe detoxification processes where indicated and dietary modifications. Although risk assessments have been made for some mycotoxins, additional, systematic epidemiological data for human exposure is needed for establishing toxicological parameters for mycotoxins and the safe dose for humans. It is unreasonable to expect complete elimination of the mycotoxin problem. But multiple approaches will be needed to minimize the negative economic impact of the toxins on the entire agriculture industry as well as their harmful effects on human and animal health.