Submitted to: Handbook of Fungal Biotechnology
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/1/2003
Publication Date: 3/1/2004
Citation: Kale, S.P., Bhatnagar, D. 2004. Protoplast isolation, regeneration, and fusion in filamentous fungi. In: Aurora, D.K., editor. Handbook of Fungal Biotechnology. New York NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc. p. 9-24.
Technical Abstract: In fungi, protoplasts can be defined as spherical cells whose chitinous cell walls have been removed by appropriate digestive enzymes. Based on the considerable literature that has accumulated over the past forty years, protoplast studies in fungi can be divided in two main sections: 1) production of stable, complete protoplasts, and 2) use of protoplasts, for example, to obtain intact chromosomes, as partners in fusion studies, and as recipients of exogenously introduced DNA (a process termed as transformation). The successful applications of such protoplast manipulations has led to a better understanding of many biochemical, physiological, and genetic phenomena in fungi. The contents of this chapter include first a review of the salient features of protoplast isolation, followed by a discussion of fusion studies specifically in filamentous fungi, in the context of fungal genetics. Where applicable, both the advantages and the limitations of the protoplast fusion technique will be highlighted. This article is targeted for those relatively "new" to the world of protoplasts, but should also serve as a source of literature to the more established fungal researchers.