Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/13/2000
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Historically, the advancement of processing technology for recovering oils from oil bearing materials has been primarily driven by economics. For thousands of years stone mills, and for several centuries simple hydraulics or lever presses were used as batch systems. The continuous mechanical presses only became reality during the early 1900s. It was not until the 1930s that extraction solvents were used more widely, which greatly enhanced the recovery of oil from oilseeds or other oil bearing materials. Commercial hexane has been the main solvent for the oilseed processing industry since the 1940s because of its availability at reasonable cost and its suitable functional characteristics for oil extraction. However, the interest in alternative solvents to hexane has continued and is motivated by one of a combination of factors: desire for a nonflammable solvents, more efficient solvent, more energy efficient solvent, less hazardous and environmentally friendly solvent, solvent with improved product quality, and solvents for niche/specialty markets. Today commercial isohexane (hexane isomers) is replacing commercial hexane in a few oilseed extraction operations and other solvents (e.g., isopropanol, ethanol, acetone, etc.) are also being used for various extraction processes or have bee evaluated for use as extracting solvents. With greater flexibility of operating hardware and availability of various solvents with tailored composition, the oilseed industry does have expanded options to choose the unique composition of solvents to obtain the desired final products. This chapter presents information on solvents for extracting oilseeds and other biological materials for oils, fats, and other materials.