Submitted to: Plant Disease
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/30/2000
Publication Date: 2/1/2001
Citation: Edwards, M.C., Fetch, T.G., Schwarz, P.B., Steffenson, B.J. 2001. Effect of barley yellow dwarf virus infection on yield and malting quality of barley. Plant Disease. 85:202-207.
Interpretive Summary: Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is the cause of some of the most important diseases of cereal crops worldwide. Moderate losses in barley due to BYDV infection occur frequently in the Upper Midwest region of the United States. The adverse effects of this virus on yield in barley are well documented; however, little is known about the effect of BYDV infection on malt quality. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of BYDV infection on yield and malt quality of the Midwestern malting barley cultivars Azure, Morex, and Robust. Infected plots were established in the field by infesting plants with aphids carrying BYDV. Control plots were not infested with aphids. Yield, thousand kernel weight, and kernel plumpness were reduced as a result of infection. Malt quality was reduced, but not all aspects of malt quality were affected. Most importantly, total protein in grain increased. Significant increases in wort protein and diastatic power, and decreases in malt extract also were found. Other factors, including kernel color, alpha amylase levels, malt recovery, and wort viscosity, were not significantly affected. It may be prudent to consider the effects of BYD on malting quality as well as on yield when developing resistant cultivars.
Technical Abstract: Moderate losses in barley due to barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) infection occur frequently in the Upper Midwest region of the United States. Studies were conducted at Fargo, North Dakota, from 1989-1990 to determine the effect of BYD infection on yield and malt quality parameters in barley. Three genotypes varying in yield potential and malting characteristics were artificially inoculated at the seedling stage with a North Dakota BYDV isolate of the PAV serotype. Yield was significantly reduced (32 to 38% in 1989 and 8 to 20% in 1990) by BYDV infection. Thousand kernel weight (3 to 15%) and kernel plumpness (12 to 39%) also were significantly reduced. Kernel color and three malt quality parameters (alpha amylase, malt recovery, and wort viscosity) were not significantly affected by BYD infection. Significant increases in wort protein (2.5 to 14.5%) and diastatic power (3.8 to 12.6%), and decreases in malt extract (1.1 to 5.6%) were found. The most important quality factor affected was total protein, with increases of 4.6 to 17.5%. Higher proportions of thin seed, presumably due to BYD, contributed to decreases in malt extract in 1989. While BYD is generally not considered to be a primary disease problem in the Midwestern malting barley region, this study confirmed the negative effect of BYDV infection on both yield and quality components. It may be beneficial to incorporate host resistance (e.g. as conferred by the single gene Yd2) into recommended malting barley cultivars due to the negative effects of BYD on crop quality as well as on yield.