Project Number: 6022-32420-001-000-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated
Start Date: Mar 3, 2021
End Date: Mar 2, 2026
1. Implement strategies using plant derived, food-grade phytochemical nanoemulsions for reducing Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry. 1A. Investigate the efficacy of in-water supplementation of phytochemical nanoemulsions in reducing S. Enteritidis and C. jejuni colonization in broiler chickens. 1B. Reduce Salmonella and Campylobacter on chicken carcasses using phytochemical nanoemulsions applied as a post-harvest intervention at critical control points in processing plants. 1C. Determine the quality, shelf-life and consumer acceptability of chicken meat subjected to the aforementioned interventions. 2. Investigate the potential mechanism(s) of action of phytochemical nanoemulsions against pathogen biofilms and determine efficacy for reducing Salmonella and Campylobacter biofilms in poultry processing plants. 2A. Determine the efficacy of phytochemical nanoemulsions as an antimicrobial wash for eradicating mature S. Enteritidis and C. jejuni biofilm formed on common food contact surfaces. 2B. Determine the efficacy of phytochemical nanoemulsions as an antimicrobial wash for inhibiting S. Enteritidis and C. jejuni biofilm formation on common food contact surfaces and their effect on exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, extracellular DNA (eDNA) production, and quorum sensing. 2C. Investigate the potential mechanism(s) of action of phytochemical nanoemulsions against pathogen biofilm by using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches. 3. Develop vaccine strategies that target multiple pathogens (i.e. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Clostridium, E. coli) utilizing novel Electron-beam technology in poultry. 3A. Test to confirm inactivation of foodborne pathogens in cocktail vaccine consisting of multi-serovars of Salmonella or multiple strains of C. jejuni in broiler chickens. 3B. Determine the efficacy of vaccine consisting of multi- serovars of Salmonella or multiple strains-C. jejuni in reducing colonization and shedding of foodborne pathogens in broiler chickens. 3C. Determine the efficacy of a multi-species cocktail vaccine in reducing colonization and shedding of foodborne pathogens Salmonella enterica, and C. jejuni in broiler chickens. 4. Identify key host neurochemical-microbiota-pathogen interactions across the biogeography of the avian gastrointestinal tract to enhance efficacy of phytochemical and vaccine-based strategies in reducing enteric pathogen colonization. 4A. Determine the ability of heat and cold stressors to influence avian susceptibility to enteric colonization of Salmonella and C. jejuni due to neurochemical production in different regions of the intestinal tract. 4B. Determine functional changes in the microbiome of each region of the avian intestinal tract in response to heat or cold stressors in Salmonella and C. jejuni challenged and unchallenged birds. 4C. Determine the ability of heat and cold stressors to influence efficacies of vaccine and phytochemical modalities on avian susceptibility to enteric foodborne pathogen colonization due to neurochemical production in different regions of the intestinal tract. 5. Utilize novel electron-beam technology to reduce pathogen prevalence on poultry products.
Food safety is a major priority for the poultry industry, among the foodborne pathogens transmitted through poultry products, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter are epidemiologically linked to the consumption of contaminated poultry and account for the majority of confirmed cases of bacterial gastroenteritis in the US. Despite substantial progress, they remain as the most common foodborne pathogens transmitted to humans. Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have been an integral part of poultry production contributing significantly to controlling pathogens, reducing infections/mortality and improved growth rate. Their use has been restricted in poultry production amid growing concerns of microbial antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The goal of this project is to use a multi-hurdle approach to develop safe and effective alternatives to antibiotics for controlling foodborne pathogens in conventional and organic poultry sectors. First, we will investigate the ability of phytochemical nanoemulsions to reduce Salmonella and Campylobacter colonization in the poultry intestinal tract, on poultry carcasses, and on food contact surfaces. Mechanism of action will be determined as well as the effect of phytochemical intervention on carcass quality and consumer acceptability. Second, electron-beam-technology will be used to develop a safe and effective vaccine targeting both Salmonella and Campylobacter in the chicken intestinal tract. Finally, comprehensive neurochemical and microbial mapping of the poultry gut will determine the effect of stress-related neurochemicals on pathogen colonization and efficacy of phytochemical and vaccine interventions. This research will lead to innovative non-antibiotic intervention strategies using plant-derived antimicrobials and novel vaccine strategies for reducing colonization of foodborne pathogens, decreasing contamination of poultry products and enhancing the health and overall welfare of poultry. Approach for New Objective 5: We proposed to utilize an Electron beam to destroy foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms in poultry meat and poultry meat products. We will determine an E-beam dose to inactivate Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter jejuni on artificially inoculated poultry meat and poultry products; confirm the efficacy of E-beam dose in inactivating pathogens on naturally contaminated poultry meat and poultry product; and evaluate the quality, shelf-life, and consumer acceptability of E-Beam irradiated meat.