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ARS Home » Plains Area » Fargo, North Dakota » Edward T. Schafer Agricultural Research Center » Sugarbeet and Potato Research » Research » Research Project #439198

Research Project: Effects of Extraction Methods on Lentil and Dry Beans Extract Composition and Structural Modification

Location: Sugarbeet and Potato Research

Project Number: 3060-21650-001-25-S
Project Type: Non-Assistance Cooperative Agreement

Start Date: Sep 1, 2020
End Date: Feb 28, 2023

Objective:
Objective 1: Fractionate, quantify, and characterize protein classes from lentils and dry bean based on their solubility to better understand the effects of ultra-high temperature (UHT) treatment on denaturation of each protein class for subsequent selection of pre-heating temperatures. Objective 2: Production of lentil and dry bean protein extracts with increased protein content, functional, and biological properties using the aqueous extraction process (AEP) and enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP). Objective 3: Convert the fiber-rich fraction (by-product) generated by the AEP/EAEP of lentil and dry bean flour into prebiotic oligosaccharides using an environmentally friendly approach. Objective 4: Evaluate anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, prebiotic, and anti-infective actions of protein extracts produced by the AEP/EAEP method (Obj. 2), and of the bioactive oligosaccharides produced from the conversion of the fiber-rich fraction (Obj. 3). Objective 5: Evaluate the thermal behavior (denaturation temperature) and structural modifications (surface hydrophobicity, zeta-potential, circular dichroism) of lentil and dry bean protein extracts produced in Obj. 2 and in isolated protein fractions from Obj. 1. Objective 6: Evaluate the effects of preheating temperatures and holding time prior to the UHT treatment on protein denaturation and fouling formation.

Approach:
An environmentally friendly extraction that uses mechanical treatments, water, and target enzymes will be used to simultaneously extract protein and carbohydrates from lentils and dry bean flours. While this approach will enable the simultaneous extraction of oil, proteins, and carbohydrates from the flour, it also generates a by-product (fiber-rich product) that can be used as substrate for the production of potential prebiotic oligosaccharides through the use of a clean process that exploits the unique properties of water in its subcritical state. Advanced mass spectrometry will enable the identification of new bioactive oligosaccharides formed by the extraction methods and characterization of more soluble and digestible proteins/peptides resulting from the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction process. Functional and biological properties of the extracts produced will be used as the major benchmark for the selection of the best processing conditions to produce healthier and more functional lentil and dry bean ingredients. Thermal treatments of select extracts will be evaluated at pilot-scale to minimize equipment fouling, a current problem affecting ultra-high temperature processing plants.