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ARS Home » Plains Area » Clay Center, Nebraska » U.S. Meat Animal Research Center » Meat Safety & Quality Research » Research » Research Project #430418

Research Project: Genomic and Metagenomic Differences in Foodborne Pathogens and Determination of Ecological Niches and Reservoirs

Location: Meat Safety & Quality Research

Project Number: 3040-42000-017-00-D
Project Type: In-House Appropriated

Start Date: Feb 1, 2016
End Date: Jan 31, 2021

Objective:
Objective 1. Molecular characterization including whole genome sequencing and transcriptomic characterization of foodborne bacteria, including pathogens and commensals, exposed to various physiologically relevant conditions reflective of the production continuum. Sub-objective 1.A: De novo, whole genome sequencing and metagenomic profiling of the microbial community present in bovine rectoanal mucosa (RAM) swab samples. Sub-objective 1.B: Characterize the genomic, phenotypic and transcriptional differences present in clinically important STEC and Salmonella serotypes exposed to different physiological relevant conditions in order to identify virulence and regulatory control mechanisms. Objective 2. Characterize the ecological niches and reservoirs to identify mechanisms of foodborne pathogen, especially biofilms, for their ability to colonize and persist leading to the development of intervention strategies. Sub-objective 2.A: Molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation. Sub-objective 2.B: Association between biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and sanitizer tolerance. Objective 3. Development and validation of various antimicrobial resistance detection methodologies including culture and genomic techniques, such as whole genome sequencing. Sub-objective 3.A: Evaluation of culture based methods for the detection of bacteria resistant to antimicrobials important to human medicine. Sub-objective 3.B: Development of genomic methods for the detection of antimicrobial resistance elements.

Approach:
The cost of food borne illness and the loss of productivity in the United States is reported to be greater than $14 billion a year. While research efforts have resulted in great strides in tracking contamination entry points and identifying mitigation strategies, outlier events continue to occur and complete prevention of foodborne pathogens entering the food chain remains an elusive goal. Attaining this goal is challenging in part because many of the target pathogens live in dynamic and complicated communities, likely not even causing disease in their host reservoir. In addition, a better understanding of the use of antimicrobial agents in animal production and the possible impact on foodborne pathogens acquiring resistance has become a top priority for many government agencies and health care advocates. The project described here will provide new information about these issues by helping to better understand the different colonization sites and how various pathogens survive and interact with their respective bacterial communities. Further, we will characterize population differences within these foodborne bacteria, focusing on those that enhance an organism’s ability to cause human illness. Ultimately, the overall aim of this project is to provide new information about pathogen (predominantly Shiga toxin-containing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella enterica) persistence and survival in a variety of environments that position them for entry into the food supply.