Submitted to: Proceedings Sunflower Research Workshop
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: January 30, 1998
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: In recent years American consumers have become concerned with reducing the saturated fat content of their diet. Studies have indicated that high levels of saturated fat consumption are correlated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. The 12 to 13% saturated fatty acid content of sunflower oil is considered low, compared to most vegetable oils. However, canola oil, a major competitor of sunflower in the oil market, contains only 6 to 7% saturated fatty acids. Manufacturers of canola oil products promote the low saturated fatty acid content in their advertising strategies. For sunflower oil to compete with canola oil and other vegetable oils with low saturated fatty acid content, it is desirable to decrease the proportion of saturated fatty acids in sunflower oil. The Sunflower Research Unit has undertaken three approaches to genetically decrease the saturated fatty acid level in sunflower oil: (1) chemical mutation of advanced germplasm lines (Vick and Miller, 1996); (2) survey wild sunflower relatives of cultivated sunflower to identify populations naturally low in saturated fatty acids (Seiler, 1996); and (3) survey the cultivated sunflower accessions stored at the National Plant Germplasm Introduction Station in Ames, Iowa, for low saturated fatty acid content. This paper documents progress on the third approach: the development of low saturated fatty acid lines from PI 250542, a cultivar collected in Egypt by P. Knowles and deposited into the National Plant Germplasm System in 1958.
Technical Abstract: A total of 884 cultivated sunflower germplasm lines from the North Central Plant Germplasm Introduction Station in Ames, Iowa, were screened for low saturated fatty acid content. PI 250542 showed reduced composition of palmitic and stearic acids and was backcrossed twice into an HA89 background. Two RP (reduced palmitic) lines were derived from PI 250542, each with a total saturated fatty acid composition less than 9.1%. This compared with 12.8% saturated fatty acids in HA89 used as a control.