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Research Project: Basic and Applied Approaches for Pest Management in Vegetable Crops

Location: Vegetable Research

Title: Association of tomato chlorosis virus complicates the management of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in the southern United States

item KUMAR, MANISH - University Of Georgia
item KAVALAPPARA, ARITHA - University Of Georgia
item MCAVOY, THEODORE - University Of Georgia
item HUTTON, SAMUEL - University Of Georgia
item Simmons, Alvin
item BAGG, SUDEEP - University Of Georgia

Submitted to: Horticulturae
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/15/2023
Publication Date: 8/21/2023
Citation: Kumar, M., Kavalappara, A.R., Mcavoy, ., Hutton, S., Simmons, A.M., Bagg, S. 2023. Association of tomato chlorosis virus complicates the management of tomato yellow leaf curl virus in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in the southern United States. Horticulturae. 9(8):948.

Interpretive Summary: Tomato production in the United States has been hindered because of the tomato yellow leaf curl virus. This virus is transmitted to tomato and many other plants by whiteflies. Also, the tomato chlorosis virus is another whitefly-transmitted virus that affects tomato, and it can infect plants in the same field that is infected by the tomato leaf curl virus. A field study was conducted to assess virus infections in seven commercial cultivars of tomato that have been reported to have moderate resistance to the tomato yellow leaf curl virus. A mixed infection of both viruses on the same plants was observed and the symptoms and amount of the viruses in the plants increased during the season; all cultivars were infected with both viruses. Results from this study demonstrate the need for growers to have tomato with some resistance to multiple whitefly-transmitted plant viruses.

Technical Abstract: Tomato (Solanum'lycopersicum, L.) production in the USA has been severely impacted by tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Furthermore, complex associations between whitefly-transmitted TYLCV (a begomovirus) and tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV, a crinivirus) were recently identified in tomato. Several tomato cultivars have been developed and commercialized with intermediate resistance against TYLCV-IL (Israel), the predominant strain of TYLCV found in Georgia. TYLCV resistant cultivars were studied in open field conditions against multiple whitefly-transmitted viruses in Georgia under natural disease pressure during the fall of 2022. The area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) over time showed a steady increase of disease severity among all cultivars. Further analysis of infected samples using high throughput sequencing (HTS) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed the presence of TYLCV and ToCV in symptomatic upper and lower leaves, respectively. Moreover, the spatio-temporal dynamics of both viruses in upper and lower leaves were determined. A mixed infection of both viruses resulted in severe disease development; this may enhance the commercial tomato plants to break resistance and lead to decreased fruit quality and marketable yields.